Speed dating i Cambridge UK

[Econ] Miserable in Comfort

2020.10.09 06:15 LiquidMedicine [Econ] Miserable in Comfort

United Kingdom - 2020

 
2020 has been, at least, a turbulent year for the United Kingdom. The COVID-19 pandemic has ushered in unprecedented times of paranoia and uncertainty, and no facet of life has gone unaffected. Yet, as the year comes to a close, and with it, the pandemic slows, the UK has the resolve to come out stronger and more powerful. In the final months of 2020, the Tory government announced a series of sweeping infrastructure updates, which have received widespread domestic support.
 
HS2 Construction - Phase One and Two
 
Planned to be completed in roughly early to mid 2026, Phase One of construction on the new HS2 railway, which will carry passengers at a routine speed of 225 mph between London and Birmingham. This is an upgrade from previous plans, which were reviewed and subsequently redrafted in 2019, which placed the HS2 line at a routine operating speed of only 205 mph. This increase in commute time could be vital to keeping the connection between two of Britain’s most major cities. Plans for Phase Two have been approved, and the government has taken the first steps to prepare construction to the city of Crewe, and eventually into Manchester by late 2026. Additionally, plans have been drawn up and preparations begun for Phase Two construction in the East Midlands ranging out to 2027.
 
Crossrail Construction Resumption
 
Crossrail, an underground rail development in the London area running east-west across the city designed to alleviate overcrowding on the city’s existing transport systems. Originally planned to open in 2018, Crossrail has been over-budget for some time. Additionally, construction was halted for much of 2020, further delaying the line from opening. However, with a budget now reaching nearly 20 billion pounds, with one of the operating companies, Transport for London, ordering an additional four tunnel-boring machines (These things are dope btw) from German company Herrenknecht AG, which has supplied the previous ten machines used in this operation. Additionally, they have sought to acquire powerful Ground-penetrating radars from American company Raytheon Systems. Authorities plan to use ground-penetrative techniques, combined with Inpipe-Penetrating Radar techniques in nearby buildings and sewers to more efficiently excavate tunnels and preserve any potential archaeological artefacts. This will also speed up estimated completion time. The government now expects Crossrail to be completed by December 2021.
 
Crossrail Preservation Efforts
 
The Crossrail construction has been a dream opportunity for archaeologists, who have found numerous artefacts in the construction zones of the tunnels beneath London. With improved radar techniques, combined with efforts working alongside international groups of archaeologists and preservationists, to ensure that we can recover our history and learn more of those who came before. However, with the current Tory government encouraging the shift of DCMS-controlled historical and cultural centers to a commercial-based platform, The McDonald Institute of Archaeological Research at Cambridge has invested in a multi-level, permanent exhibit dedicated to the preservation and display of everyday artefacts discovered in the dirt beneath England, free to the public. They have made an effort to acquire as many artefacts from private collectors, as well as the construction companies, as possible, and have an impressive 80-item exhibit.
 
Heathrow Airport Expansion
 
London is a crowded city, but at a certain point, it gets a little obnoxious. And with everyone a bit more on-edge regarding proximity and crowds following the COVID-19 pandemic, it is obvious that London needs to expand its transport capacity in multiple sectors. The Heathrow Expansion was a go for 2020, however it was halted in February 2020 over climate concerns. Following a reconsideration of the plans, and subsequent passing by a Tory-led parliament, the runway is to go ahead as planned for construction, despite the possibility of increasing CO2 emissions of the airport by millions of tonnes per year. The new third runway, which would run above the M25 speedway, would only disrupt the two communities of Harmondsworth and Longford. Additionally, a new terminal will be constructed on the southwest side of the airport to better facilitate travel, as the airport currently operates at 98% capacity. Two hotels will also be constructed on-site at Heathrow to improve passenger experience, with contracts being bidded off to British company Travelodge and American company Wyndham Worldwide. Finally, public transport routes will be optimized, and additional stops and services will be provided. Overall, this is estimated to bring in a huge number of temporary jobs during the construction phase, as well as at least 2,000 permanent jobs at the airport alone post-upgrade. This is not to mention the unspeakable economic benefits of increasing the capacity of Britain’s most valuable economic lifeline.
 
5G Rollout
 
Perhaps the most controversial of the new rollouts, the UK government has dropped Huawei for 5G negotiations following increased wariness of potential security concerns regarding Chinese-made electronics. The government has since sought to secure a deal with Swedish tech giant Ericsson. Although some networks have launched minor, localized test 5G networks, Ericsson will be tasked with providing the entirety of the United Kingdom with 5G access, using their patented MIMO-based method for transmission. Speedy implementation of 5G is critical to the UK’s post-COVID economic recovery, and Ericsson plans to have a majority of population centers covered by 5G by 2022. They plan to work closely with local government, and existing 5G networks with companies such as Vodafone, to ensure Britain can be as interconnected as possible.
 
Investing in Information
 
With the news breaking of underwater data centers being found not only effective, but environmentally sustainable in the long-term, the government leaped into action to ensure this success, which took place off the coast of the Orkney Islands, remained as localized to the UK as possible.
It is true that the waters north of Scotland are the ideal conditions for Microsoft’s underwater data centers. As such, the government seeks to acquire a contract for Microsoft to place up to twelve more data centers of varying sizes, perhaps dedicated to quantum computations or AI research, in key recommended locations off the coast of the UK, primarily off the northern and western coasts of Scotland. With other companies now seeking to get in on the action, the government has also permitted what is considered a lofty, ambitious project.
UK company New Generation Data Europe, who operates Europe’s largest datacenter in Wales, is seeking to create a large datacenter off the northern coast of Wales, the size of which dwarfs any experiments done to date. Though in the early phases of planning, the company expects to use the information learned from this experiment to upgrade its main center, which operates on a massive computer first designed in 1998.
 
TLDR;
UK economy go brr
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2020.09.29 20:31 Subtlegi {NF] A Technical Investigation of Citizen Kane

I wrote this some time back as a term paper for a College Film Class. The reference pics have been removed to save space
A Technical Investigation of Citizen Kane
It’s Not All Black and White
📷 Citizen Kane is considered perhaps the best film ever produced. What does it contain that so many of others missed? I believe it is the imagination and technical expertise of Orson Welles and Greg Toland’s talent cocktail that forged this memorable work. To the right, notice both men on the floor setting up a low angle shot. Welles did very little alone, he was intelligent enough to use “OPB” other people’s brains. The screenplay alone does not stand up well against many other “Great Films,” it is the audio/visual experience created by the use of great techniques in lighting, photography and sound recording which make this film a masterpiece.
Over a period of twenty-five years, I have acquired a great deal of knowledge and experience in the Visual Arts. During this time I worked professionally in film, sound, and video while also enjoying the wonderful art of amateur black and white photography. My resume’ qualifies me to present a case for my thesis and in doing so I will cite technical information which is a part of my knowledge base. This combined with my research, meld into a comprehensive report on the behind the scenes wizardry of an ultra talented group of filmmakers.
📷Like most humans, I experience film through my eyes and ears, always looking deeper, beyond the dialog alone, into the complete experience. Although I hear the famous word “Rosebud” spoken by Kane, it is the atmosphere of the room, and the close up of his mouth, which amplifies the moment.
📷 Orson Welles wrote, directed, and acted in many productions of which Citizen Kane, being his best known, is the film he’ll be remembered. The following is a sampling of other productions Welles wrote, directed and more, except for this first two, written by William Shakespeare. MACBETH, described by Welles as "a violently sketched charcoal drawing of a great play," The magnificent photography by John L. Russel (Psycho) Directed by Orson Welles, and acted by Welles, Jeanette Nolan, DanO'Herlihy, Roddy McDowall, 1948. OTHELLO (production spanned three years) it won the Grand Prize at Cannes. Directed by Orson Welles, With: Welles, Suzanne Cloutier, Micheàl MacLiammoir, Robert Coote, 1952, THE LADY FROM SHANGHAI, Rita Hayworth plays a sultry wife, and includes the legendary hall-of-mirrors shootout finale. Directed and written by Orson Welles, 1947. THE MAGNIFICENT AMBERSONS, Directed and written by Orson Welles, 1942. TOUCH OF EVIL, Directed and written by Orson Welles, With: Heston, Welles, Janet Leigh, Joseph Calleia, Akim Tamiroff, Dietrich, Mercedes McCambridge, Dennis Weaver, 1958 (Starlight News).
After reading the above, it is impossible to overlook Welles as the original film multi-tasker. This man did it all. As a fine actor, writer, and director, it can be argued Welles has a bit of a control issue, but perhaps when you’re as talented as he, it’s not to unusual to not want to place your work or self in another’s hands.
The conductor of light, director of photography Greg Toland was hired from Samuel Goldwym Studios at $700.00 per week (Carringer 69). While at Goldwyn Studios Toland became regarded as one of the most creative cinematographer of the 1930.
His ‘acknowledged brilliance,’ as “American Cinematographer” magazine argued in 1942, placed him in the most nearly ideal position any Director of Photography has since the halcyon days when D.W. Griffith and Billy Blitzer were between them creating the basic techniques of the screen (American Cinematographer).
These accolades and of course the films themselves placed Toland in a position of power when negotiating with producers. Here are some items he requested and received from the producers of Citizen Kane. “RKO was obliged to employ Toland’s regular crew and rent his camera equipment from Goldwyn” (Carringer 69). He demanded these guarantees as an artist, for he had personalized his equipment, his brush, so to speak, to accommodate the style in which he shot. The crew consisting of grips, camera assistants, and gaffes were all a part of Toland’s creative bag of tricks that worked together as a one organism to accomplish the monumental task of producing a film of this caliber. Above all Toland insisted on creative control. This he had become accustomed to at Goldwyn Studios. After much success in his early career, Toland remarked, "I want to work with someone who's never made a movie. That's the only way to learn anything from someone who doesn't known anything”(Walling). He got his chance in 1941 with Citizen Kane on Orson Welles first movie. This team of Toland, and Welles became a creative partnership unsurpassed in movie making history.
There is light and the absence of light, there is shadow, created by infringing on the path of a light. These elements are the two ends of the visual spectrum. White (light), Black (shadow) and by the expected use of them, every lighting situation (in B/W) can be resolved. Mind pictures like these become possible in the right hands. Powerful light driven through small spaces cut like knives on the floor and walls. Soft light pushed through a window or down a hall washes the area like a softly driven snow. The power of this technique is obvious in the shot captured of the Walter Thatcher Library. (right) Nothing is resolved here (can be seen clearly), but it’s not the dialog or the face of the actors the filmmakers are interested in, but the mood set by the absence of light and the rod of
light coming from above. Reminiscent of a spiritual setting, the beam of light representing the entrance of the Almighty into the room.
Film is the medium that followed and in some ways took the place of paint, brush, and canvas, first with the snapshot, followed by moving pictures. In 1940 film had its limitations, even today it’s requires an informed photographer to photograph in a variety of settings with equally satisfactory results. Much of what makes an artist great is the length to which they are able to stretch the medium in which they work. This is where Welles and Toland excelled; they stretched the ability of the camera and film to lengths never before attained.
The tone of Citizen Kane is created with light, shadow, and darkness. Photography and light go hand in hand, in fact photography, as we know it, cannot exist without a light source. The way a scene is lit directly affects the resulting print. Film stocks of the late thirties, early forties were “slow” meaning the amount of exposure time (to light) with respect to the quality and resolution of the resulting print is high (long). A “fast” film with a speed of 800ASA or higher can capture an image indoors without a flash or extra lighting in a normally lit room. In 1940 a 100ASA film was considered fast, this film used in daylight would be capable of good exposure, but anything less than daylight would require lights, for a stills, a flash, for moving pictures, stage/motion picture lighting …Big, Hot, sometime noisy lights.
The film used to shoot Citizen Kane was Kodak Super XX, 100ASA which was an “off the shelf” product, that fortunately for Toland had just recently been released. Double X was “Four Times Faster” than its immediate predecessor. Without this timely release Citizen Kane may never have been made. The other variable is the amount of light needed and available, and how much one chooses to expose the film. Exposure time and aperture settings are two variables that determine, to a great extent, whether a scene will appear as bright as a 📷sunny day or full of shadows with the blackest blacks, but only grayish whites. Proper contrast presents itself as balanced if upon examination the black & white negative it exhibits the two extremes represented on the gray scale, black and white. This bias manifests in a photo that is too dark or too light and lacks contrast.
The manipulation of exposure can be seen and studied early in this film. In the scene shot in the projection room, Toland under exposed the film by not using an “average” light setting, (balanced) instead he resolved the streams of light pouring from the projection windows and placed the actors in the shadows. There is nothing wrong with this; in fact, it is exactly what they wanted. The average person taking snapshots of their children would not appreciate their photos turning out in this fashion, but the professional is an artist, and artists create moods and settings with the tools of their art. In film, what we don’t see sometimes makes the shot
📷 “Camera derives from the Latin word for room or chamber. The camera pre-dates film. The Camera Obscura or “Dark Room,” occasionally seen at scenic locations was, in its original form, a pinhole camera.
The “pinhole’ in the roof could scan the countryside by means of a rotating mirror. The image was focused on a white table in the center if the room and viewed by observers inside the “camera” (Di Guilio).
📷”The Mitchell Camera Corporation began in 1919 as a camera repair and modification shop in Hollywood, as The National Motion Picture Repair Company (Roberts 141). The film was shot with Mitchell BNC cameras (BNC stands for Blimped News reel Camera). The BNC was introduced in 1934 and the first two cameras were sold to Goldwyn Studios in 1934 and 1935. "The first important picture on which they were used was Citizen Kane" (Roberts148) In 1934, this camera made the recording of sound for film feasible. At around 35 dB, the NC was quiet enough for unblimped use in exterior sound filming, as long as the microphone was not near the camera. Later that year the BNC was introduced, the B stood for Blimped. The Blimp is a sound proof housing which surrounded the camera bringing the sound level to a very quiet 21dB! To the average person these numbers mean nothing, even with an explanation of these levels may continue to seem irrelevant. But, take it from a man who spent years on sound stages, in recordings and television studios, the difference is huge; 35dB “decibels” is the sound level in an average home, 21dB is the sound level of a whisper, or rustling leaves. These are logarithmic numbers and the difference is demonstrated by taking the next step up. 70dB is the sound level of freeway traffic and of a vacuum cleaner. The change the “blimped” camera had on motion pictures is immense! (Noise)
The camera’s angle and length of lens create perspective. A long lens creates a voyeuristic feel as if looking in from afar a good example being Hitchock’s Rear Window. A short or wide lens brings the viewer into the scene. Angles are simple to understand.
📷
Considered how you appear to a small child from its playpen? Put yourself in the it’s place, think of its perspective “low” looking up, “wide” larger than life, and somewhat distorted view. This is not a pleasant picture. The baby looking up sees a huge, distorted thing; fortunately babies are innocent and cannot put the ominous nature of their vulnerable scene in perspective. Conversely, the perspective of an adult looking down at a child is like a king from his throne, a feeling of power, not vulnerability. Perspective makes the difference. Even in a situation where those involved are adults as in a courtroom setting, perspective plays a role. In a courtroom, the judge sits up high upon their judgement seat, which forces the defendant to look up. The judge appears large and powerful, while the defendant feels small, powerless, and vulnerable. Above, strong and in control, below, weak and suppliant. Orson, digs holes (right) in floors, through walls, and flies his cameras in the air shooting from different angles, creating different perspectives. A film shot at one level is flat, without flavor and as bland as an unseasoned potato.
📷 Next we explore the topic of “depth of field” (the distance from the object nearest to the camera and the farthest that are in continuous focus) also know as “Deep Focus” The first notable example is from the footage shot in the parlor of Mrs. Kane’s boarding house. In the foreground, mother, father, and Mr.Thatcher
discuss the boy’s future while in the background young Kane is seen through the window, all in perfect focus. Another example is the scene where Kane and his wife are sitting at either end of a long dining table in the huge Xanadu, big headed Kane intimidating and distorted (not out of focus) in the foreground, his bored wife, small and insignificant in the distance, both presented in sharp detail.
📷This next frame combines two techniques, “tight composition,” and “deep focus.” Tight composition meaning a quantity of images in a relatively small frame, and deep focus, all the images in frame are in focus. The scene is when Kane walks in on Susan’s singing lesson only to hear “the Maestro,” frustrated and disgusted with Susan’s ineptness, screaming a laundry list of insults at her. Bad timing. Kane in anger reprimands “the Maestro.”
After a few critical viewings, and a quick look at my camera’s dept of field indicator, I estimate the field covered in “the Maestro” frame was approximately 18 inches to 30 feet. Probably an 18mm or 25mm lens was used which has great depth of field when stopped down to F/11 or F/16, these two numbers are aperture setting or f-stops, indicate the size of the hole the camera looks through. The larger the number the smaller the hole, and the great dept of field.
A standard photographers table supplies the following values: for an 18.5mm lens at F/8: 1' 6" to Infinity and for 25mm: 2’ 9" to Infinity. To shoot at these apertures, a 100 ASA film requires 1280-foot candles of light, which is quite high by today’s standards. (A foot-candle is equal to the light ‘one candle’ would illuminate a surface at the distance of one foot.)
The definition of Deep Focus is applicable as a frame of reference in defining Shallow Focus, in which one part of the screen is in focus and the rest blurred, thus directing the viewer's attention to the key element of the action. This was a useful technique, but not an innovation in the1930s, having been used since the early days of film, although much of it’s use was dictated by the limitations of the cameras and films of the time.
An unknown Internet author describes a fancy focus technique.
📷Toland found that extra means were needed to maintain sharpness in certain extremely deep shots. Split-focus lenses and carefully controlled double exposures sometimes turned the trick, but were difficult to set up. One example is in the sequence in which Kane's wife attempts suicide: a glass, spoon and medicine bottle in sharp focus dominate the foreground; the bed is in the middle ground; and figures enter the door in the background. Here the foreground was lighted and photographed first, with the rest of the scene in darkness. Then the foreground was silhouetted and the background was lighted and shot in focus on the same film. (Sharp Practice)
Film is the medium that in some ways followed and took the place of paint, brush, and canvas. First came the snapshot, followed by moving pictures. To this day film has limitations, but in 1940, they were manifold. Much of what makes an artist great is the length to which they stretch the medium in which they work. This is where Welles and Toland excelled; they stretched the ability of camera, film, and light to lengths never before attained.
📷Before the making of Citizen Kane sound stages and film sets were open ceiling. A lot went on just above the frame, all of it unseemly, and needed to be hid, things such as; microphones, (big ugly microphones on booms with cables hanging) and other equipment that hung from the usually high ceiling sets. This open ceiling arrangement prohibited the camera from tilting (a vertical pan) any higher than the top of a room’s wall. Toland and Welles had no desire to repeat the same old shots seen hundreds of times before. They figured a way to work around this problem. They created ceilings with muslin, now microphones and the like were hidden above this “new ceiling.” This permitted Toland to shoot from the floor, (right) actually from a hole in the floor without thought of running out of wall. Note all that ceiling showing.
📷This took the bit from Toland’s mouth, freeing him to point the camera wherever his heart desired. The frame pictured to the left is an extraordinary example for three innovations are demonstrated in one shot: covered ceilings, a low angled perspective and deep focus. Fantastic!
Who says you have to be high tech to be innovative? Artists dislike restraints, when set free, they fly high. Freedom brought us this wonderful film.
The sound on Citizen Kane encompasses dialog, sound effects, and the musical score. In reverse order, Bernard Herrman scored the film, and later went on to compose the music for other great movies, including Psycho and Taxi Driver (who can forget that sax?). Welles brought with him from radio a keen ear and an understanding of sound effects. These effects augmented the film, but were not overpowering as in some films today. One example of his subtle usage is noted by Robert Carringer. “. . . such as the typewriter heard in extreme close-up when Kane is finishing the opera review and the musical accompaniment to the light bulb that dims to signal the faltering of Susan’s singing career”(100). I’ve recorded many sound tracks for video and television and I don’t envy the task assigned to the engineers in charge of this film. Even when recording a simple spot, I used more and better equipment than the entire sound crew of Citizen Kane.
In their process . .
. . . there are two separate and distinct sound operations, each presided over by a different sound engineer. One engineer is in charge of the sound recorded during the production. His chief assistant is the operator of the boom – a microphone slung from a long metal rod and suspended above the actors’ heads (Carringer 102).
Considering the task of a “boom operator” under ordinary circumstances was difficult, on Welles’ set there were times it must have been close to impossible. Because of the muslin ceilings the operator had a much more difficult time properly placing the microphones above the actors.
Once recorded, then it went into post production, and into the hands of James G. Stewart, a sound contractor who work on some of the most famous theaters in America, including Radio City Music Hall, before moving to California and joining RKO. He was in charge of post production, in those days called “rerecording,” today mixing and overdubs.
📷In the late thirties one could not go to a local sound store and buy whatever your budget allowed, these sound engineers, were just that, “engineers,” and if they needed something they’d design and build it. The crude two-man mixing console shown here is a “one off,” built for RKO under Stewart’s direction. Prior to this point in the process, the audio is dry (no effects, or processing) it’s during the “re-recording” process that echo, reverb, effects, and overdubs are inserted and mixed. Sound persons rarely get much glory, but without them, the public might still be watching silent films (Carringer 102-3).
In closing, Citizen Kane is a technical milestone in movie making, although I find the screenplay depressing. This tale of a boy removed from his family, given an education and all the money he could ever need (so one would think). Who grows into an idealistic, generous, and kind man, who had plans to change the world, but instead the world changed him, and for that, he hates the world and himself in return. The final scene, reveals his true heart, one, once so soft, now, hardened and broke. Calling to the heavens, spoke his final word “Rosebud” the name of a sleigh he once owned, so long ago, before fate stepped in and killed the boy. When Kane spoke, “Rosebud” he was not only calling out the name of a child’s toy, no, he was calling out to the life he left behind which contained that sleigh. The life he never had the chance to live.
📷📷📷📷📷”Rosebud” “Rosebud” “Rosebud” “Rosebud” “Rosebud”
Sources Cited
American Cinematographer, “Greg Toland.” 1942. http://www.cinematographer.com (1999)
Carringer, Robert. The Making of Citizen Kane. University of California Press, Berkeley
  1. 69, 100, 103-04.
Di Giulo, Edmund. “An Historical Survey of the Professional Motion-Picture Camera.”
SMPTE Journal, NY, 1967
Forzano’s Studio Stock “Gray Scale Chart” NY, 1979.
Noise Levels In Decibels. “The Sound Level Chart”
http://www.temple.edu/CEPT/temp/dcblevel.html (Nov. 2000)
Roberts, Laurence. “The Mitchell Camera: The Machine and Its Makers”
SMPTE Journal, NY. Oct. 1981: 141, 147, 148.
Star Light News. “Orson Wells.” http://starlightnews.cjb.net/orson.htm (Nov. 2000)
The British Film Institute “Gregg Toland -Sharp Practice”
http://www.bfi.org.uk/sightandsound/archive/innovators/toland.html (Oct.2000)
Time Life “Citizen Kane Cinematography Notes”
http://www.pathfinder.com/photo/essay/kane/toland.htm (Oct. 2000)
Images: Peter Stackpole, LIFE, Welles and Toland on floor, 1.
RKO Radio Picture**:** Projection Room, 4. Mother in the Boarding House, Kane outside, 7. Tight Composition, 8. Low Ceilings, 10. Low Angle, 10.
Walling, Christopher “Cinematographer Gregg Toland”
http://www.christopherwalling.com/Pages/S&L~GreggToland.html (Nov. 2000)
Wilgus, Jack and Beverly. “A Search for Camera Obscura.” The Magic Mirror of Life.
http://brightbytes.com/cosite/what.html (Nov. 2000)
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2020.09.28 03:40 Subtlegi Citizen Kane

Citizen Kane
This was my term paper for a college film class I took some years back. I did much research, spoke with Kodak, a cameraman from the shoot, as well as being a camera buff and videographer. I took out the all of photos referenced to save space here, but if anyone likes it and wants the complete piece I'd be happy to send it to you, just let me know. gabriel
https://preview.redd.it/v6p9ng6tlsp51.jpg?width=1790&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b6458662ef0ad0112d6a5dfcbc362e7f631e45f6
A Technical Investigation of Citizen Kane
It’s Not All Black and White
📷 Citizen Kane is considered perhaps the best film ever produced. What does it contain that so many of others missed? I believe it is the imagination and technical expertise of Orson Welles and Greg Toland’s talent cocktail that forged this memorable work. To the right, notice both men on the floor setting up a low angle shot. Welles did very little alone, he was intelligent enough to use “OPB” other people’s brains. The screenplay alone does not stand up well against many other “Great Films,” it is the audio/visual experience created by the use of great techniques in lighting, photography and sound recording which make this film a masterpiece.
Over a period of twenty-five years, I have acquired a great deal of knowledge and experience in the Visual Arts. During this time I worked professionally in film, sound, and video while also enjoying the wonderful art of amateur black and white photography. My resume’ qualifies me to present a case for my thesis and in doing so I will cite technical information which is a part of my knowledge base. This combined with my research, meld into a comprehensive report on the behind the scenes wizardry of an ultra talented group of filmmakers.
📷Like most humans, I experience film through my eyes and ears, always looking deeper, beyond the dialog alone, into the complete experience. Although I hear the famous word “Rosebud” spoken by Kane, it is the atmosphere of the room, and the close up of his mouth, which amplifies the moment.
📷 Orson Welles wrote, directed, and acted in many productions of which Citizen Kane, being his best known, is the film he’ll be remembered. The following is a sampling of other productions Welles wrote, directed and more, except for this first two, written by William Shakespeare. MACBETH, described by Welles as "a violently sketched charcoal drawing of a great play," The magnificent photography by John L. Russel (Psycho) Directed by Orson Welles, and acted by Welles, Jeanette Nolan, DanO'Herlihy, Roddy McDowall, 1948. OTHELLO (production spanned three years) it won the Grand Prize at Cannes. Directed by Orson Welles, With: Welles, Suzanne Cloutier, Micheàl MacLiammoir, Robert Coote, 1952, THE LADY FROM SHANGHAI, Rita Hayworth plays a sultry wife, and includes the legendary hall-of-mirrors shootout finale. Directed and written by Orson Welles, 1947. THE MAGNIFICENT AMBERSONS, Directed and written by Orson Welles, 1942. TOUCH OF EVIL, Directed and written by Orson Welles, With: Heston, Welles, Janet Leigh, Joseph Calleia, Akim Tamiroff, Dietrich, Mercedes McCambridge, Dennis Weaver, 1958 (Starlight News).
After reading the above, it is impossible to overlook Welles as the original film multi-tasker. This man did it all. As a fine actor, writer, and director, it can be argued Welles has a bit of a control issue, but perhaps when you’re as talented as he, it’s not to unusual to not want to place your work or self in another’s hands.
The conductor of light, director of photography Greg Toland was hired from Samuel Goldwym Studios at $700.00 per week (Carringer 69). While at Goldwyn Studios Toland became regarded as one of the most creative cinematographer of the 1930.
His ‘acknowledged brilliance,’ as “American Cinematographer” magazine argued in 1942, placed him in the most nearly ideal position any Director of Photography has since the halcyon days when D.W. Griffith and Billy Blitzer were between them creating the basic techniques of the screen (American Cinematographer).
These accolades and of course the films themselves placed Toland in a position of power when negotiating with producers. Here are some items he requested and received from the producers of Citizen Kane. “RKO was obliged to employ Toland’s regular crew and rent his camera equipment from Goldwyn” (Carringer 69). He demanded these guarantees as an artist, for he had personalized his equipment, his brush, so to speak, to accommodate the style in which he shot. The crew consisting of grips, camera assistants, and gaffes were all a part of Toland’s creative bag of tricks that worked together as a one organism to accomplish the monumental task of producing a film of this caliber. Above all Toland insisted on creative control. This he had become accustomed to at Goldwyn Studios. After much success in his early career, Toland remarked, "I want to work with someone who's never made a movie. That's the only way to learn anything from someone who doesn't known anything”(Walling). He got his chance in 1941 with Citizen Kane on Orson Welles first movie. This team of Toland, and Welles became a creative partnership unsurpassed in movie making history.
There is light and the absence of light, there is shadow, created by infringing on the path of a light. These elements are the two ends of the visual spectrum. White (light), Black (shadow) and by the expected use of them, every lighting situation (in B/W) can be resolved. Mind pictures like these become possible in the right hands. Powerful light driven through small spaces cut like knives on the floor and walls. Soft light pushed through a window or down a hall washes the area like a softly driven snow. The power of this technique is obvious in the shot captured of the Walter Thatcher Library. (right) Nothing is resolved here (can be seen clearly), but it’s not the dialog or the face of the actors the filmmakers are interested in, but the mood set by the absence of light and the rod of light coming from above. Reminiscent of a spiritual setting, the beam of light representing the entrance of the Almighty into the room.
Film is the medium that followed and in some ways took the place of paint, brush, and canvas, first with the snapshot, followed by moving pictures. In 1940 film had its limitations, even today it’s requires an informed photographer to photograph in a variety of settings with equally satisfactory results. Much of what makes an artist great is the length to which they are able to stretch the medium in which they work. This is where Welles and Toland excelled; they stretched the ability of the camera and film to lengths never before attained.
The tone of Citizen Kane is created with light, shadow, and darkness. Photography and light go hand in hand, in fact photography, as we know it, cannot exist without a light source. The way a scene is lit directly affects the resulting print. Film stocks of the late thirties, early forties were “slow” meaning the amount of exposure time (to light) with respect to the quality and resolution of the resulting print is high (long). A “fast” film with a speed of 800ASA or higher can capture an image indoors without a flash or extra lighting in a normally lit room. In 1940 a 100ASA film was considered fast, this film used in daylight would be capable of good exposure, but anything less than daylight would require lights, for a stills, a flash, for moving pictures, stage/motion picture lighting …Big, Hot, sometime noisy lights.
The film used to shoot Citizen Kane was Kodak Super XX, 100ASA which was an “off the shelf” product, that fortunately for Toland had just recently been released. Double X was “Four Times Faster” than its immediate predecessor. Without this timely release Citizen Kane may never have been made. The other variable is the amount of light needed and available, and how much one chooses to expose the film. Exposure time and aperture settings are two variables that determine, to a great extent, whether a scene will appear as bright as a 📷sunny day or full of shadows with the blackest blacks, but only grayish whites. Proper contrast presents itself as balanced if upon examination the black & white negative it exhibits the two extremes represented on the gray scale, black and white. This bias manifests in a photo that is too dark or too light and lacks contrast.
The manipulation of exposure can be seen and studied early in this film. In the scene shot in the projection room, Toland under exposed the film by not using an “average” light setting, (balanced) instead he resolved the streams of light pouring from the projection windows and placed the actors in the shadows. There is nothing wrong with this; in fact, it is exactly what they wanted. The average person taking snapshots of their children would not appreciate their photos turning out in this fashion, but the professional is an artist, and artists create moods and settings with the tools of their art. In film, what we don’t see sometimes makes the shot.
📷 “Camera derives from the Latin word for room or chamber. The camera pre-dates film. The Camera Obscura or “Dark Room,” occasionally seen at scenic locations was, in its original form, a pinhole camera.
The “pinhole’ in the roof could scan the countryside by means of a rotating mirror. The image was focused on a white table in the center if the room and viewed by observers inside the “camera” (Di Guilio).
📷”The Mitchell Camera Corporation began in 1919 as a camera repair and modification shop in Hollywood, as The National Motion Picture Repair Company (Roberts 141). The film was shot with Mitchell BNC cameras (BNC stands for Blimped News reel Camera). The BNC was introduced in 1934 and the first two cameras were sold to Goldwyn Studios in 1934 and 1935. "The first important picture on which they were used was Citizen Kane" (Roberts148) In 1934, this camera made the recording of sound for film feasible. At around 35 dB, the NC was quiet enough for unblimped use in exterior sound filming, as long as the microphone was not near the camera. Later that year the BNC was introduced, the B stood for Blimped. The Blimp is a sound proof housing which surrounded the camera bringing the sound level to a very quiet 21dB! To the average person these numbers mean nothing, even with an explanation of these levels may continue to seem irrelevant. But, take it from a man who spent years on sound stages, in recordings and television studios, the difference is huge; 35dB “decibels” is the sound level in an average home, 21dB is the sound level of a whisper, or rustling leaves. These are logarithmic numbers and the difference is demonstrated by taking the next step up. 70dB is the sound level of freeway traffic and of a vacuum cleaner. The change the “blimped” camera had on motion pictures is immense! (Noise)
The camera’s angle and length of lens create perspective. A long lens creates a voyeuristic feel as if looking in from afar a good example being Hitchock’s Rear Window. A short or wide lens brings the viewer into the scene. Angles are simple to understand.
Considered how you appear to a small child from its playpen? Put yourself in the it’s place, think of its perspective “low” looking up, “wide” larger than life, and somewhat distorted view. This is not a pleasant picture. The baby looking up sees a huge, distorted thing; fortunately babies are innocent and cannot put the ominous nature of their vulnerable scene in perspective. Conversely, the perspective of an adult looking down at a child is like a king from his throne, a feeling of power, not vulnerability. Perspective makes the difference. Even in a situation where those involved are adults as in a courtroom setting, perspective plays a role. In a courtroom, the judge sits up high upon their judgement seat, which forces the defendant to look up. The judge appears large and powerful, while the defendant feels small, powerless, and vulnerable. Above, strong and in control, below, weak and suppliant. Orson, digs holes (right) in floors, through walls, and flies his cameras in the air shooting from different angles, creating different perspectives. A film shot at one level is flat, without flavor and as bland as an unseasoned potato.
📷 Next we explore the topic of “depth of field” (the distance from the object nearest to the camera and the farthest that are in continuous focus) also know as “Deep Focus” The first notable example is from the footage shot in the parlor of Mrs. Kane’s boarding house. In the foreground, mother, father, and Mr.Thatcher
discuss the boy’s future while in the background young Kane is seen through the window, all in perfect focus. Another example is the scene where Kane and his wife are sitting at either end of a long dining table in the huge Xanadu, bigheaded Kane intimidating and distorted (not out of focus) in the foreground, his bored wife, small and insignificant in the distance, both presented in sharp detail.
📷This next frame combines two techniques, “tight composition,” and “deep focus.” Tight composition meaning a quantity of images in a relatively small frame, and deep focus, all the images in frame are in focus. The scene is when Kane walks in on Susan’s singing lesson only to hear “the Maestro,” frustrated and disgusted with Susan’s ineptness, screaming a laundry list of insults at her. Bad timing. Kane in anger reprimands “the Maestro.”
After a few critical viewings, and a quick look at my camera’s dept of field indicator, I estimate the field covered in “the Maestro” frame was approximately 18 inches to 30 feet. Probably an 18mm or 25mm lens was used which has great depth of field when stopped down to F/11 or F/16, these two numbers are aperture setting or f-stops, indicate the size of the hole the camera looks through. The larger the number the smaller the hole, and the great dept of field.
A standard photographers table supplies the following values: for an 18.5mm lens at F/8: 1' 6" to Infinity and for 25mm: 2’ 9" to Infinity. To shoot at these apertures, a 100 ASA film requires 1280-foot candles of light, which is quite high by today’s standards. (A foot-candle is equal to the light ‘one candle’ would illuminate a surface at the distance of one foot.)
The definition of Deep Focus is applicable as a frame of reference in defining Shallow Focus, in which one part of the screen is in focus and the rest blurred, thus directing the viewer's attention to the key element of the action. This was a useful technique, but not an innovation in the1930s, having been used since the early days of film, although much of it’s use was dictated by the limitations of the cameras and films of the time.
An unknown Internet author describes a fancy focus technique.
📷Toland found that extra means were needed to maintain sharpness in certain extremely deep shots. Split-focus lenses and carefully controlled double exposures sometimes turned the trick, but were difficult to set up. One example is in the sequence in which Kane's wife attempts suicide: a glass, spoon and medicine bottle in sharp focus dominate the foreground; the bed is in the middle ground; and figures enter the door in the background. Here the foreground was lighted and photographed first, with the rest of the scene in darkness. Then the foreground was silhouetted and the background was lighted and shot in focus on the same film. (Sharp Practice)
Film is the medium that in some ways followed and took the place of paint, brush, and canvas. First came the snapshot, followed by moving pictures. To this day film has limitations, but in 1940, they were manifold. Much of what makes an artist great is the length to which they stretch the medium in which they work. This is where Welles and Toland excelled; they stretched the ability of camera, film, and light to lengths never before attained.
📷Before the making of Citizen Kane sound stages and film sets were open ceiling. A lot went on just above the frame, all of it unseemly, and needed to be hid, things such as; microphones, (big ugly microphones on booms with cables hanging) and other equipment that hung from the usually high ceiling sets. This open ceiling arrangement prohibited the camera from tilting (a vertical pan) any higher than the top of a room’s wall. Toland and Welles had no desire to repeat the same old shots seen hundreds of times before. They figured a way to work around this problem. They created ceilings with muslin, now microphones and the like were hidden above this “new ceiling.” This permitted Toland to shoot from the floor, (right) actually from a hole in the floor without thought of running out of wall. Note all that ceiling showing.
📷This took the bit from Toland’s mouth, freeing him to point the camera wherever his heart desired. The frame pictured to the left is an extraordinary example for three innovations are demonstrated in one shot: covered ceilings, a low angled perspective and deep focus. Fantastic!
Who says you have to be high tech to be innovative? Artists dislike restraints, when set free, they fly high. Freedom brought us this wonderful film.
The sound on Citizen Kane encompasses dialog, sound effects, and the musical score. In reverse order, Bernard Herrman scored the film, and later went on to compose the music for other great movies, including Psycho and Taxi Driver (who can forget that sax?). Welles brought with him from radio a keen ear and an understanding of sound effects. These effects augmented the film, but were not overpowering as in some films today. One example of his subtle usage is noted by Robert Carringer. “. . . such as the typewriter heard in extreme close-up when Kane is finishing the opera review and the musical accompaniment to the light bulb that dims to signal the faltering of Susan’s singing career”(100). I’ve recorded many sound tracks for video and television and I don’t envy the task assigned to the engineers in charge of this film. Even when recording a simple spot, I used more and better equipment than the entire sound crew of Citizen Kane.
In their process . .
. . . there are two separate and distinct sound operations, each presided over by a different sound engineer. One engineer is in charge of the sound recorded during the production. His chief assistant is the operator of the boom – a microphone slung from a long metal rod and suspended above the actors’ heads (Carringer 102).
Considering the task of a “boom operator” under ordinary circumstances was difficult, on Welles’ set there were times it must have been close to impossible. Because of the muslin ceilings the operator had a much more difficult time properly placing the microphones above the actors.
Once recorded, then it went into post production, and into the hands of James G. Stewart, a sound contractor who work on some of the most famous theaters in America, including Radio City Music Hall, before moving to California and joining RKO. He was in charge of postproduction, in those days called “rerecording,” today mixing and overdubs.
📷In the late thirties one could not go to a local sound store and buy whatever your budget allowed, these sound engineers, were just that, “engineers,” and if they needed something they’d design and build it. The crude two-man mixing console shown here is a “one off,” built for RKO under Stewart’s direction. Prior to this point in the process, the audio is dry (no effects, or processing) it’s during the “rerecording” process that echo, reverb, effects, and overdubs are inserted and mixed. Sound persons rarely get much glory, but without them, the public might still be watching silent films (Carringer 102-3).
In closing, Citizen Kane is a technical milestone in movie making, although I find the screenplay depressing. This tale of a boy removed from his family, given an education and all the money he could ever need (so one would think). Who grows into an idealistic, generous, and kind man, who had plans to change the world, but instead the world changed him, and for that, he hates the world and himself in return. The final scene, reveals his true heart, one, once so soft, now, hardened and broke. Calling to the heavens, spoke his final word “Rosebud” the name of a sleigh he once owned, so long ago, before fate stepped in and killed the boy. When Kane spoke, “Rosebud” he was not only calling out the name of a child’s toy, no, he was calling out to the life he left behind which contained that sleigh. The life he never had the chance to live.
📷📷📷📷📷”Rosebud” “Rosebud” “Rosebud” “Rosebud” “Rosebud”
Sources Cited
American Cinematographer, “Greg Toland.” 1942. http://www.cinematographer.com (1999)
Carringer, Robert. The Making of Citizen Kane. University of California Press, Berkeley
  1. 69, 100, 103-04.
Di Giulo, Edmund. “An Historical Survey of the Professional Motion-Picture Camera.”
SMPTE Journal, NY, 1967
Forzano’s Studio Stock “Gray Scale Chart” NY, 1979.
Noise Levels In Decibels. “The Sound Level Chart”
http://www.temple.edu/CEPT/temp/dcblevel.html (Nov. 2000)
Roberts, Laurence. “The Mitchell Camera: The Machine and Its Makers”
SMPTE Journal, NY. Oct. 1981: 141, 147, 148.
Star Light News. “Orson Wells.” http://starlightnews.cjb.net/orson.htm (Nov. 2000)
The British Film Institute “Gregg Toland -Sharp Practice”
http://www.bfi.org.uk/sightandsound/archive/innovators/toland.html (Oct.2000)
Time Life “Citizen Kane Cinematography Notes”
http://www.pathfinder.com/photo/essay/kane/toland.htm (Oct. 2000)
Images: Peter Stackpole, LIFE, Welles and Toland on floor, 1.
RKO Radio Picture: Projection Room, 4. Mother in the Boarding House, Kane outside, 7. Tight Composition, 8. Low Ceilings, 10. Low Angle, 10.
Walling, Christopher “Cinematographer Gregg Toland”
http://www.christopherwalling.com/Pages/S&L\~GreggToland.html (Nov. 2000)
Wilgus, Jack and Beverly. “A Search for Camera Obscura.” The Magic Mirror of Life.
http://brightbytes.com/cosite/what.html (Nov. 2000)
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2020.05.14 17:20 thamilton5 “The privacy movement is dead”, says Streamr’s Head of Growth, Shiv Malik. In its stead, individual data ownership will bring a healthier balance to our relationship with personal data.

“The privacy movement is dead”, says Streamr’s Head of Growth, Shiv Malik. In its stead, individual data ownership will bring a healthier balance to our relationship with personal data.

Privacy is dead. Long live data ownership.


https://preview.redd.it/0nlcai43yqy41.png?width=2700&format=png&auto=webp&s=ad41b962712473ecec117e95057ce0c4372fe8e5

Do people care about privacy?

In May 2012, I made national news in the UK. In protest over Facebook’s $100bn IPO, I deleted my account, and this was a sufficient offence to warrant being hauled into a TV studio. When asked to explain myself, I replied: “I didn’t want to be an infoslave any more.” Facebook, I argued, had turned us all into data production factories. Enough was enough. “To see, in a sense, this $100bn dollar value created out of people’s shared dreams and hopes and discussions and pictures — that seems to be a step too far. I don’t want to make Mark Zuckerberg any richer.”
Motivated by disgust, I’d gone out on a limb. The newsreader’s retort was blunt: “This is an argument you’ve already lost. Hundreds of millions of people have bought into Facebook.”
He was right. The network effects of Facebook had trammelled any socioeconomic argument that I or others could put forward. No one seemed to care about privacy. Or equality. Or even their own dignity.
Three years later in late 2015, my then colleague at the Guardian, a junior reporter named Harry Davies, uncovered what would become known as the Cambridge Analytica scandal. He asked me to give him a hand in getting the desk editors more interested. I said I’d try to get a quote or two from respectable US commentators to lift the story’s prominence. I rang David Frum, George W Bush’s former speechwriter and Atlantic senior editor. Frum’s response was similarly blunt. Americans don’t care about online privacy. He didn’t see the interest. I took it as a sign that nothing had changed since 2012.
I was reminded of these two experiences once again whilst sitting in a research project I’d helped set up a few months back. Asked about their attitudes to privacy and data monetisation (how comfortable people feel selling the data they produce whenever they use digital platforms) a single response was stark in its repetition. To quote a respondent directly: “We use the internet, they [the tech companies] gather our data. That’s just the kind of give and take [we’re involved in]. I’m not hugely fussed about it.”
How have attitudes shifted so little in the last decade, despite the horror stories which continue to pile up? Cambridge Analytica may have pierced through into the general consciousness, but that story is one amongst what must be scores of major data scandals every year. What about the anti-virus software that itself acts as spyware, hoovering up your most intimate data to retail to the world’s biggest corporations? And speaking of hoovering, what about the vacuum cleaners that send your home’s floor plans to China? Or the computer fonts that log your every word? And this is only what is happening today. If you really want the willies, it’s worth listening to the ever erudite Jamie Bartlett on what might happen in the near future. [See 25:38]
People are not oblivious to the reality of the situation. Far from it. They do, on the other hand, feel dislocated from and disempowered by the tech they use every day.
Shiv Malik on Channel 4 News in May 2012
For those who believe in progress, these sentiments are dispiriting. Not only have people realised they must live under the tyranny of terms of conditions, they feel they have no choice but to abide by it. They’re trapped. So who will stand up for their rights?
The answer to this would normally be government. But governments are in on the act. They are busily collecting and even overtly selling our data. Whether it is the DMV hawking driver information, the NHS selling patient info to Google or, as Edward Snowden revealed, institutions like GCHQ or the NSA forcibly contracting the very same tech companies they should be regulating to do their data collection for them, the examples are plentiful and egregious.
But here’s something else I found in that research: if you stick with people just that little bit longer, it turns out they really do care about their privacy, and they do want some control over the information they create. The response “I don’t care” is often a shield, a defence mechanism against the sense of helplessness at the sheer scale of the problem. But that shield is protecting something precious that lies just beneath: hope.

Hope in the Dark

The research was commissioned by the open-source technology project Streamr. I began working for Streamr three years ago because I was drawn to its mission to change the landscape of personal data.
There’s a summary of the research findings here, but, for me, the most interesting discovery, not enumerated in the summary, was that when respondents tell you that they don’t care — about data, about privacy — that’s far from the full story.
Consumers today are cornered. “We don’t have much choice,” said another respondent, “we are signing our life away.” When faced with the flagrant and seemingly unstoppable use and abuse of their digital identities, and the sense of powerlessness that accompanies it, people default to telling themselves they don’t care. It’s easier that way.
The truth of this hit home most clearly when we gave our attendees just a modicum of control over the data they create.
When asked if people would be interested in selling their data as part of an online collective or, as we’ve termed it at Streamr, a Data Union, an outright majority of participants scored the idea highly. When we gave them a working example of a Data Union (Swash, a browser plugin) to play around with, they loved the Data Union concept even more.
When people realised they could have a say over who they shared their data with, where it was sold, what price it could fetch, they became increasingly animated.
In part, Swash acts as a basic enough tool to allow people to have a genuine say over what data from their browser they’d like to share (and monetise) and what they would prefer to remain private. It turns out that, given the chance at reclaiming some of their power or imagining an alternative to data tyranny, consumer indifference fades away.
When given a real choice, our participants underwent a remarkable transformation. When people realised they could have a say over who they shared their data with, where it was sold, what price it could fetch, they became increasingly animated. They engaged and were thoughtful about their choices. If anything, the researchers were soon trying to manage over-expectations — participants suddenly wanted full control over all the data they generated on every platform they visited. The mental shackles of ‘infoslavery’ were off.

How do you reform the data economy?

In the midst of our slow-burn techlash, the world isn’t without alternative visions for a data economy. Given that we currently inhabit a Panopticon hell, imagining better could perhaps be deemed an easy feat.
Those visions (oversimplified here) can be described like this:
  1. Open data — A world in which vital and useful data is shared between all parties and made open for anyone to utilise, rather like a commons.
  2. Privacy First — digital platforms should minimise the data created about users and personal data should remain private and under individual control by default. Sharing data should happen only in the most necessary circumstances and everything should be encrypted.
  3. Data ownership — People should be able to take control of the data they generate through the framework of ownership and it should be within their right to license the use of that data to whomever they choose.
If you can’t put your ideas into practice, then history eventually renders them worthless. By that metric, the first two visions have had significant successes.
The open data movement has by-and-large been championed by Tim Berners-Lee’s think tank the Open Data Institute. It has delivered the open banking movement in the UK and also helped to establish a norm that data produced by democratic governments should be open for anyone to utilise, for free.
The Privacy First movement has arguably had even greater success. A good number of organisations, including the Electronic Frontier Foundation and Privacy International promote pro-privacy aims, and the principles they espouse have informed powerful pieces of legislation like GDPR and the newly enacted California Consumer Privacy Act. Most importantly, there are now a huge number of pro-privacy tools that people can use. Tech like Whisper, Signal, WhatsApp, Brave, DuckDuckGo and Firefox have meant that explicitly pro-privacy software has been put into the hands of tens of millions of people.
And yet, although the open data and privacy visions have won scores of battles, they have failed to win the war. On a global scale, there is less privacy and more data siloed away than at any time in history.
Panel at the Royal Society of the Arts, Mozfest 2019: “Should we sell our data?”
Perhaps with the Open Data movement the problem is this: the Open Data movement demands that the state enact laws mandating the data behemoths give up what they regard as their private property and share it with the rest of us.
The tactic here is to extrapolate power to the smallest number of people (legislators) in the hope that they will stop another tiny number of very powerful people (tech oligarchs) from staying rich. Even if such a monumental lobbying effort should succeed and open data laws were to be enacted, its success would be momentary. How long would it really take Big Tech to counter-lobby those Open Data provisions? It’s such a flawed tactic that even Berners-Lee is pursuing another way forward.
Conversely, Privacy First’s great tactical gambit is to rely on others, billions of others, adopting and internalising its high, almost Puritan ideals. These privacy warriors have set sail in the digital version of the Mayflower to remake the world anew, insisting on an attitude to privacy so universally reverent that everything, from the phone in your hand to your coffee maker to your car, will be technologically imbued with a deep sense of respect for the individual. All information points must undergo a complex moral test before being released: does the publication of this data point threaten my moral right to shape my own identity?
And here the problems with this strategic approach multiply. Firstly, how far can you culturally tip people toward putting privacy above convenience? The results speak for themselves. The cognitive overload of regularly asking those ethical questions, and constantly adopting and maintaining privacy-enabling technology, stands no chance against the temptation of convenience, as evidenced by how much people are paying Jeff Bezos to spy on them through Alexa. Consumers put convenience above privacy billions of times each day. The results-to-date say the fight for minds isn’t winnable.
Secondly, the privacy Puritans simply do not have the resources to make the world of both software and hardware anew. Whether they know it or not (and many of them know it), what they are really calling for is a remaking of any item of capital with a circuit board. To ensure that there are no leaks of information of any kind that might once again empower the centralized conglomerate, every single gadget in the world will need to be remade. When 99.99% of hardware makers, from cars to phones to watches, have alternatively aligned interests, this simply isn’t feasible. And if you can’t remake all the hardware of the world (you can’t), then privacy Puritans are left trying to persuade the Apples and Fords and Facebooks of the globe to ensure our privacy for us. That’s a pretty weak position.
This turns us to the third issue, which is that whilst humans can be abstracted to the model of a privacy-loving individual, actual humans, the real ones who breathe and work and consume, are simply not private. People want and need to be connected. As the entrepreneur and recent NYC Democratic congressional contender James Felton Keith recently put it to me: “We thrive as a species because we’re interconnected”.
If The Virus has taught us anything, it is just this lesson: our interconnectedness is a vital and fundamental part of modernity and of our humanity. As my colleague Faris Oweis warns, COVID-19 is testing that line between our privacy and our survival as an interconnected species.
Countries are deploying surveillance tech and gathering our location and health data to mitigate the spread of the virus and ultimately the death count. Are we willing to provide this data to these stakeholders in return for the potential to flatten the curve? If so, are we then also fine with health agencies or insurance companies capturing our data to monetise it? Before you say no, what if that information is sold to pharmaceutical companies, who then create a vaccine based on the information?
Privacy systems designers rarely take that need for interconnectedness fully into account. In a data economy context, the right to privacy gives you the right to say no; to assert that you will not share information about who you are and what you do. But we also live in a world where we want to say yes. Pro-privacy systems rarely facilitate that desire.
Whilst the ideals and aims of the privacy and open data movements are in so many ways well-intentioned and correct, the results demonstrate that the strategy and tactics have failed. Despite a decade or more of pro-privacy and open data initiatives, the vast bulk of humanity is worse off in terms of both open data and privacy than in any other time in human history.
So let’s just say it: the privacy and open data movements are dead. Let’s give them the funeral they deserve, but let’s bury them deep in the ground.

Long live data ownership

So what about data ownership, the third child in the line of a potential succession of Utopian ideals? The idea has been backed by an eclectic but largely uncoordinated bunch of radical thinkers, from Jaron Lanier and Yuval Noah Harari, to Will.i.am. Recently, the better coordinated MyData movement has filled many gaps, but actual implementations have been very thin on the ground, and past emanations of the idea have floundered. Other startups who’ve stepped into the space seem to skirt around giving consumers genuine ownership of their data — instead they offer cash in return for things like consumer surveys, rewarding consumers for providing even more data, not for the data they have already created.
What has bedevilled this vision of ownership is that enabling individuals to own and trade their data is a huge technical problem. To make the point, let’s briefly recall one of the first experiments in self-monetising personal data. Two decades ago, a British man named Chris Downs decided to try and sell his data. He downloaded his personal information from various companies and websites and put it up on Ebay for auction. Ultimately, someone paid him $315 in today’s prices. Not bad, but not exactly scalable.

Down’s data (photo Chris Downs)
From a technological infrastructure perspective, individuals who try to own and trade their personal data today are still lumbered with the same ineffective tools. As Downs put it in his wonderful 2017 piece re-remembering his experiment: “Disappointingly, nothing much else has changed. The experience [of selling your data] is just as clumsy, frustrating and disorganised as it was 17 years ago”.
The experience [of selling your data] is just as clumsy, frustrating and disorganised as it was 17 years ago.”
For those who believe in the ownership model for data, this is a disaster. The infrastructure and institutions simply aren’t there. And as the Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto showed, without infrastructure and institutions to make ownership rights realisable, not only do you not have rights, you don’t have a proper economy either. Imagine trying to claim title to a house without estate agents, lawyers, surveyors, monetary systems, legal systems or a title registry. Impossible, right? This is where we’ve been with data ownership.
I would argue that it is just this lack of infrastructure for realising ownership, not privacy rights, that has left people’s data open to abuse all these years. The perfect example is Facebook itself. They proudly declare: “You own the information you share on Facebook”. But there’s no way to utilise or instantiate your property rights. It’s all empty. Because they have the means to monetise the underlying asset and you don’t, you are weak, and they are strong.
As Montana Senator, Jon Tester, quipped to Mark Zuckerberg in a 2018 congressional hearing, “You’re making about forty billion bucks a year, and I’m not making any money — it feels as if you own the data”.

Roads and rails for the people

Given that the personal data market is worth hundreds of billions of dollars, why aren’t there better solutions for the millions of potential Chris Downs out there? We have apps for all sorts of services — why not apps that help you monetise your data?
The answer is that genuine individual data monetisation is technically very difficult to achieve. And until now, few of the parts of the puzzle have been in place to operate it. (Just a caveat here. What we’re talking about is the infrastructure to deliver real-time data. Static data delivery is somewhat easier to build, but real-time is where the future value of any data system will be situated). The main issues are these:

Transporting data

If you’re going to sell your data to someone else, you’re going to need a way to move it from its original source to a prospective buyer. Downs used the post to send his 800 printed pages. Today, an individual could use Google Drive but this is horribly inefficient at scale. Big tech companies have built a data transportation backend for themselves, but it’s been out of the technical reach of ordinary individuals to exploit that type of infrastructure with any sort of ease.

Data discovery

Again, like Downs, sellers and buyers need a place to discover data and eBay itself won’t scale to this purpose. You need specific data marketplaces that actually point buyers to what they want. But there’s a second part to this: aggregation. Data buyers aren’t going to negotiate the purchase of data from thousands of Chris Downses. It isn’t practical. Individuals need a way to aggregate or pool their data into one, clean, simple-to-buy data product on a marketplace.

Micro-payments

Just when you think you might be able to solve the latter problems, along comes the killer blow. People need to get paid. No problem, right? We have banks and money. But if a buyer spends $10,000 on a data product, which is drawing data from one million people, how do you send them all one cent each? Regular banks aren’t going to be able to do this. You need a micropayment service.
If you want data ownership to become an infrastructural reality, then data transport, a marketplace and a micropayment service are your basic technical requirements.
Remarkably, the Streamr team is seated squarely at this conjunction of real-time data and digital payments. By October 2019, they had not only built the start of a decentralized, permissionless, end-to-end encrypted Network for data transport but also a data Marketplace for the discovery and purchase of data. A micropayment service exploiting cryptographic tokens, which they called Monoplasma, was added to the mix, which meant that all these parts — a data network, a marketplace and micropayments — could come together in Streamr’s Data Union developer framework. This will be released later this year.
Here’s a technical outline of what’s going on:

The Data Union framework technical outline
How the tech is built is of paramount importance. Usually, a company will sit in the middle of these transactions. That way they always call the shots. But in Streamr’s ecosystem, the data and the payments travel directly between individuals and buyers (peer-to-peer), and through two separate decentralized networks. This allows, crucially, for genuine consent. If I as an individual do not want to share my data, there is no centralized party who can override my wishes. In other words, no means no. But yes, really also means yes. And here you have all the tools at your disposal to action that choice.
Learn more about Swash. The World's first Data Union
I don’t want to shill here, but for the sake of this essay I do want to elucidate what an actual Data Union looks and feels like. Again, ideas are a dime a dozen. Actual implementations in the personal data monetisation space are few and far between. A practical working example of a personal data monetisation tool is Swash. Built by a small team based out of Turkey, Swash is the world’s first Data Union built on top of the Streamr stack. Here’s what the search data of its 1000 members looks like:

https://i.redd.it/kwh2pjlsyqy41.gif
I love this GIF because here you can literally see over 1000 people coming together and acting collectively.
For clarity, Swash makes money, too. And they should. The team built the app, continue to find buyers for the data, manage legal contracts, refine the data and bring in more Data Union members. That’s a lot of work that no one is going to do solely out of the goodness of their heart. But their reward is limited. When the data sells, Swash can take a maximum of 30% of all revenue.
Streamr has built a generic framework so that anyone can build a Data Union like Swash for themselves. The system is permissionless and, most importantly, open source, which means any dev team with the right skill set can come along and start creating a Data Union.
Of course, Streamr’s technical stack is not the only toolset that directly allows people to make data ownership a realisable right. There are others including teams in the MyData consortium who are very much doing just this. The EU and others have also started funding the development of data portability and personal data monetisation projects. But to my mind Streamr has set the working standard which I’ve not yet seen replicated anywhere else.

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Data ownership: a socioeconomic revolution?

Now that it’s possible to overcome these technical hurdles, let’s try and figure out what the benefits of data ownership through these Data Union (or data cooperative) set-ups might be.
Let’s start by saying that, in one sense, these Data Union structures aren’t particularly radical. To quote Jaron Lanier and Glen Weyl, one the central progenitors of the data cooperative idea (they term it a Mediator of Individual Data or MID):
“Entities of their shape and necessity in the physical world could hardly be more familiar. Organizations like corporations, labor and consumer unions, farmers’ cooperatives, universities, mutual funds, insurance pools, guilds, partnerships, publishers, professional societies, and even sports teams are all critical to dignified societies and effectively serve the MID function.”
It turns out healthy modern economies are full of agents and institutions who represent our interests. The only novelty with Data Unions is that they act for us in the digital realm.
Let me also define the type of ownership. Often when people consider data ownership, they think of it in the simplest terms. I own this lumber. I sell it to you. You now own it and I have no claim. But property transfers encompass a far broader spectrum of behaviours.
Because of the richness of what data represents, when transferring data as property, data cooperative style organisations will likely adopt leasing rights more akin to authorship rights than simplistic property rights. The economist Maria Savona, has laid this out really well. And if you’ve ever seen an actual data sales contract, the lease framework is not far off how they are already framed. Companies don’t just sell their data, they grant access rights to it with complex clauses. Those contracts sometimes run into over a hundred pages.
So with those caveats declared, let’s look at the specific benefits of data ownership.

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Data Unions as envisioned by Maggie Appleton

Far better enforcement

Those who battle for privacy tend to leverage a legal framework that has only really been formed in the last 70 years or so. In Europe, the right to privacy was developed as part of the European Convention on Human Rights. What almost always seems to be forgotten is that, at least in English common law, privacy is far more deeply rooted in property rights than within our modern human rights framing.
The classic common law case, which influenced the drafting of the US 4th Amendment, is Entick V Carrington. Entick was an 18th-century London-based publisher, and King George III’s Minister of State didn’t like what he was writing. So the minister sent his heavies to break into Entick’s property, search for and confiscate his pamphlets. Entick sued. Not for a right to free speech or privacy, but for trespass — an offence of property. The judges were clear: Entick had a right to enjoy his property without lawful intrusion. As the Chief Justice declared in his 1765 judgment:
The great end, for which men entered into society was to secure their property. That right is preserved sacred and incommunicable in all instances, where it has not been taken away or abridged by some public law for the good of the whole.
I own these papers, you cannot have them. I own this house, you cannot come in. I own this land, you must not intrude on it. For hundreds of years, property-based rights have given people far more privacy against the powerful in a way that the modern right to privacy cannot rival. One day soon we should be able to add this to the above declarations: I own this data, you cannot take it.
So if you want privacy from Silicon Valley and nation states, property rights represent a much stronger set of rights than modern privacy rights. But there’s a second point here. Rights without any possibility of enforcement are fairly useless rights. Currently, government agencies or companies are in charge of enforcing an individual’s right to data privacy. We all know this isn’t working. Government agencies are hopelessly outgunned in both the scale of the problem and the strength of the powers they are up against.
But when data is treated as property in free exchange, as opposed to being reduced to a moral question around the release of information, suddenly the enforcement possibilities increase. Data Union members don’t have to be rich or highly educated to protect their privacy. Now they’ll have an organisation with a financial incentive to work on their behalf to enforce their rights.
If a member doesn’t want company ‘X’ to sell their data (because their Data Union is now doing it for them and giving them the lion’s share of those sales), then that Data Union is likely to chase company ‘X’ up and sue it for infringement of what are now commercial rather than simply human rights. Why? Because they get paid for enforcing their users’ rights. And so does the Data Union member.

De-monopolising data sets

It is perennially fascinating to me that one of the main properties of digital information is that it is entirely replicable at the push of the button, and yet somehow a handful of companies have gotten incredibly wealthy by managing to retain their monopoly over it. This is of course partly based on their ability to use property rights to enforce their claims to that user-generated information. But that information also resides with the user. If I watch Tiger King on Netflix, Netflix knows exactly what I do and exactly how I watch that programme. But so do I. I just don’t have very good methods for collecting the data and then making use of it.
Now that incentivising the collection and aggregation of that data from the user’s end is a possibility, expect very soon to see the de-monopolisation of data.
A prime example is Google Maps. They control the map app game because breaking in now requires having tens of millions of users to compete with the richness of information that Google’s users supply to Google. No one wants to use an app that can’t tell you how long the journey time is between one place and another. But the app interface and the underlying data powering that app are two separate things. If I can aggregate that location data that Google Maps depends on to maintain its monopoly, my Data Union can then lease that to any app builder who wants to create a new map app. And they can stick any number of new features on it. And that’s just one example. What about doing that with Uber? Or Netflix? Or Amazon Kindles? By creating user-owned data sets outside the control of major tech firms, you are going to increase innovation massively. Revised EU data portability rules, which are likely to drop in the next few years, will only speed up this process.

Data Dignity

Perhaps the last but most obvious thing to note is that users who have been exploited for over two decades will finally have what Lanier and Weyl term, “data dignity.”
Jaron Lanier Fixes the Internet NYT Opinion
Though the data aspect of the phrase is well-defined in their seminal essay on the topic, I’ve realised they don’t actually define what they mean by dignity. I’ll take a stab at it here, and perhaps this everyday example might point towards an intuitive sense of what is meant.
Pretty much every time I land on a website or use an app, I have a 40-page contract of adhesion shoved in my face. These organisations know I cannot possibly read these contracts. They also know I don’t have a team of lawyers to argue the revision of terms, even if I did read them. But they do it so that they can cover their abuses or screw-ups with one tick of a box. I work hard. I keep a good home. I am a good father and friend. I take pride in these things. But every day Silicon Valley treats me like dirt. And for one reason alone. In this situation, I have no power.
To dignify me (and every other person who uses the internet) would mean companies and site owners recognising my inherent position of weakness and nevertheless respecting my choices and concerns. I want to genuinely be able to choose what someone on the other side of that digital interface knows about me, and what they subsequently do with that data. The state and its privacy statutes have not enabled that for me. Under GDPR I am still regarded as a “data subject”.
Legal entitlement to my property will give me back my dignity. Receiving payment for the use of that property gives me back my dignity. Protection by personal enforcement agents gives me back dignity. Having a genuine choice gives me back dignity — I’m being offered something that I can choose to accept or reject. The power dynamics between me and the Valley will be changed, and I will have far more control. As Lanier says, “That’s the way you make a humane culture”.

Conclusion

As if this blog wasn’t too long, I’ve yet to tackle any of the well-observed critiques that people often make about the data ownership framework. I will do that in a second blog, which will be published soon. But to conclude let me say this: we’ve got a long way to go with trialling data ownership as a means of taking back privacy and regaining a modicum of dignity and equality in the process. Mistakes will be made. The tech might be buggy at first. Supportive legislation will be slow in the making. But the longest distance to travel in all of this will be the one we travel in our minds.
I believe data ownership is a great meme, one that will permeate far better than the ideas of open data or even privacy. But shifting internal paradigms — so that people realise they are in control — will still be a challenge. The mental process of emancipation from this state of personal data exploitation will be a long one, requiring patience and guidance. But given our current relationship between the data behemoths and ordinary people, it’s a journey that I’m sure hundreds of millions will be willing to take.
See the original post on Medium from Shiv Malik.
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2020.05.08 18:40 MiniKun-T Links concerning Bill gates, Coronavirus, Virus's in general

They patented a vaccine for it in 2014, went live 2019-11-20.
The inventors still work for Pirbright today. Inventors: • BICKERTON, Erica Woking Surrey GU24 0NF (GB)• KEEP, Sarah Woking Surrey GU24 0NF (GB)• BRITTON, PaulDevon EX16 8NN (GB)
https://patents.google.com/patent/EP3172319B1/de
https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/1d/4e/4a/ac8914e765d645/EP3172319B1.pdf

This was obtained by the The Pirbright Institute whose stakeholders include Bill gates and WHO:
https://www.pirbright.ac.uk/partnerships/our-major-stakeholders
Bill gates "warned" us all about this in 2018https://www.sciencealert.com/bill-gates-warns-a-new-disease-could-kill-30-million-people-in-6-months

Lies have been told about when this research started:
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/global-health/science-and-disease/coronavirus-covid-19-vaccine-trials-uk-news/
"Work on the vaccine, developed by clinical teams at the University of Oxford's Jenner Institute and Oxford Vaccine Group, began in January.
On April 23, a potential coronavirus vaccine being developed at the University of Oxford began human trials."-----"Human trials on the vaccine have already started in the US - breaking records for the speed with which such trials can get off the ground. Healthy volunteers in America are being given the new-generation “genetic hack” after it bypassed standard animal testing as part of a highly-accelerated process. "
https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-51665497
"A vaccine would normally take years, if not decades, to develop. Researchers hope to achieve the same amount of work in only a few months.
**Most experts think a vaccine is likely to become available by mid-2021, about 12-18 months after the new virus, known officially as Sars-CoV-2, first emerged."**
The coronavirus was first discovered in 1965/6 in a patient with the common cold. Before that it was known to exist in animals as IBV.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3194943/
The coronavirus is found in people suffering from a common cold, influenza, pneumonia amongst other things. So if you've ever had a cold, you have had a strain of coronavirus. SARS was described as a more dangerous form of pneumonia....which is a more dangerous form of influenza(flu)....which is a more dangerous form of the common cold.... . This makes it pretty easy to fake a pandemic when everyone with a cold(plus it is possible to be infected with a viral strain without becoming sick) would test positive
.https://www.sciencemediacentre.org/expert-comment-on-different-types-of-testing-for-covid-19/
“The technique presently being used to test for the presence of virus is quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, or qRT-PCR. Strictly speaking it does not detect antigen but **viral RNA"**
Viral RNA: An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material. This nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) but may be double-stranded RNA (dsRNA).
Coronaviridae/coronaviruses are Single-stranded RNA viruses.-----
This is like an evolving series of website articles related to each other:
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/contagion-controversy-erupts/ 2011
"Working separately, they each hit on a combination of mutations (five, in Dr. Fouchier’s case) that makes H5N1 airborne (enabling it to spread readily between humans), without making it less deadly. "
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/exclusive-controversial-us-scientist-creates-deadly-new-flu-strain-for-pandemic-research-9577088.html 2014
" A controversial scientist who carried out provocative research on making influenza viruses more infectious has completed his most dangerous experiment to date by deliberately creating a pandemic strain of flu that can evade the human immune system. "
"Some members of the audience, however, were shocked and astonished at his latest and most audacious work on flu viruses, which follow on from his attempts to re-create the 1918 flu virus and an earlier project to increase the transmissibility of a highly lethal strain of bird flu."
https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/02/exclusive-controversial-experiments-make-bird-flu-more-risky-poised-resume 2019
"Controversial lab studies that modify bird flu viruses in ways that could make them more risky to humans will soon resume after being on hold for more than 4 years."
"One of the projects has already received funding from the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH’s) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) in Bethesda, Maryland, and will start in a few weeks; the other is awaiting funding."
https://www.cambridgeindependent.co.uk/news/university-of-cambridge-s-prof-jonathan-heeney-answers-call-from-bill-gates-to-transform-flu-vaccine-9083999/ 25 September 2019
" Prof Jonathan Heeney, head of the Laboratory of Viral Zoonotics at the University of Cambridge, is one of seven recipients so far of a $12million fund designed to make progress towards a game-changing **universal influenza vaccine**."
"Prof Heeney said his lab aimed to create a new vaccine candidate ready for human trials within two years." **This was september 2019, Now we are 05/20, vaccine supposedly ready for coronavirus in around 18 months. Combine that with all the other predictions and patents it's beyond suspicious**
"With predictions that a flu pandemic, like the one that struck in 1918, could kill 33 million people globally in just six months, the stakes could hardly be higher." **A prediction made by Bill gates remember**
"Among the other recipients (of the 12 million fund) announced are **Yoshihiro Kawaoka**"
Yoshihiro Kawaoka was the person from the last 3 websites for those who didn't read.
------------First you had pneumonia SARS, which misteriously dissapeared. https://bioethics.georgetown.edu/2016/06/where-has-sars-gone-the-strange-case-of-the-disappearing-coronavirus-by-robert-peckham/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC539564/
"The first phase started when a professor from Guangzhou, who had been treating patients with atypical **pneumonia** in a Guangzhou hospital in Mainland China, visited Hong Kong in February 2003. He stayed at the Metropole Hotel in Kowloon on 21 February. The professor **was already unwell** when he travelled to Hong Kong and on 22 February he was admitted to the Kwong Wah Hospital in Kowloon. Later he died. "

"From this first index case, 7 other people whose rooms had been on the same floor of the hotel contracted --pneumonia-- SARS, including 3 visitors from Singapore, 1 visitor from Vietnam, 2 visitors from Canada and 1 local person. Seemingly it was these 7 individuals who, having acquired the infection from the index case, transmitted --pneumomia-- SARS to Canada, Vietnam, Singapore, and elsewhere in Hong Kong. The local person was admitted to a teaching hospital, the Prince of Wales Hospital, at Shatin on 4 March 2003. From this patient the disease spread through that hospital, ultimately affecting over 100 medical and nursing personnel."

Symptoms of pneumonia
A cough, difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, high temperature, feeling generally unwell, sweating and shivering.
What are the symptoms of the coronavirus disease (Aka SARS2)?
Fever, cough or chest tightness, myalgia (< muscle pain), fatigue and dyspnoea (< shortness of breath) are the main symptoms reported.
High temperature == Fever; Cough == Cough; Difficulty breathing == Dyspnoea; Feeling unwell + Sweating and shivering == fatigue
The symptoms of viral pneumonia usually develop over a period of several days. Early symptoms are similar to influenza symptoms: fever, a dry cough, headache, **Muscle pain == myalgia**
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2020.04.29 21:30 Ar-Q-bid Ray of Good News

Here's some good news in light of all the gloomy stuff we usually see: New York City is speeding up the construction of bike lanes and bus lanes in an attempt to cut back on car usage.
I know that it's just one city, but it's a very large city (with a population greater than many countries) which means that it's got a rather large carbon footprint.
Promoting more public transport and bicycles would reduce per capita fuel consumption.
Bikes cause less wear and tear on the road than cars so in the long run this means less energy expended to maintain roads.
The impacts on improving people's health by encouraging more cycling and less driving also is great for the healthcare system in the USA.

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/28/nyregion/nyc-biking-deaths-lanes.html?auth=link-dismiss-google1tap

After Spike in Deaths, New York to Get 250 Miles of Protected Bike Lanes

The city will build the lanes as part of a $1.7 billion street safety plan to be adopted by Mayor Bill de Blasio and the City Council.
Riding a bicycle in New York City is often a harrowing journey across a patchwork of bike lanes that leave cyclists vulnerable to cars. The dangers came into focus this year after 25 cyclists were killed on city streets — the highest toll in two decades.
Now Mayor Bill de Blasio and the City Council have agreed on a $1.7 billion plan that would sharply expand the number of protected bike lanes as part of a sweeping effort to transform the city’s streetscape and make it less perilous for bikers.
Its chief proponent, Corey Johnson, the City Council speaker, calls it nothing less than an effort to “break the car culture.’’
Such ambitions show how far New York has come since around 2007 when the city, under Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, started aggressively taking away space for cars by rolling out bike lanes and pedestrian plazas.
Under pressure from the City Council, the city would be required to build 250 miles of protected bike lanes in the coming years, along with a dizzying list of other street upgrades that safety advocates have long called for. The city now has about 1,250 miles of bike lanes, including 126 miles on city streets that are protected, meaning that a barrier separates the lanes from vehicles.
“New Yorkers know that the way we get around our city right now makes no sense,” said Mr. Johnson, who is expected to run for mayor in 2021. “Our streets have been really poorly planned in a piecemeal fashion.”
The cyclist deaths have prompted an outpouring of sadness and outrage. The victims have included a 10-year-old boy killed by an unlicensed driver steps from his home and a 52-year-old man who was hit out of nowhere by a careening car that was captured in a horrifying video.
Cities like Los Angeles and Washington are expanding their bike networks, but New York’s plans are far more expansive. San Diego plans to build 70 miles of new bike lanes, while Cambridge, Mass., set rules this year to add protected lanes on all rebuilt roads. Copenhagen is the international model for bike infrastructure, with about 250 miles of protected bike lanes.
The bike lanes proposed in New York are a key part of Mr. Johnson’s so-called Streets Master Plan, a bill that is expected to be approved by the City Council on Wednesday. Mr. de Blasio’s administration had expressed concerns about the bill, but the mayor is now on board and says he will sign it.
“We know redesigning New York City’s streets will help us end tragic, preventable traffic deaths,” Will Baskin-Gerwitz, a mayoral spokesman, said in a statement. “Mayor de Blasio and his team have worked hard with the Council to hone ambitious new goals that will save lives.”
The plan could face many challenges. Bike lanes have often faced fierce opposition, including lawsuits and resistance from community boards that balk at having parking spaces removed and worry about the impact on local residents and businesses. The city’s Department of Transportation would also have to move quickly to add workers and equipment to carry out so many construction projects at once.
The bill calls for the Transportation Department to release a plan every five years to make streets safer and to prioritize public transit, starting in December 2021. The city must hit targets every year, including building 150 miles of bus lanes that are physically separated from other traffic lanes or monitored by cameras over five years.
Mr. de Blasio has completed 100 miles of protected bike lanes since 2014, but the City Council’s plan is more aggressive and reflect Mr. Johnson’s disdain for cars.
He has argued that, among other problems, the city has too many parking spaces, comments that have been viewed as a frontal attack on the two million or so New Yorkers who have cars.
The City Council has become increasingly eager to make its mark and to push Mr. de Blasio, who recently ended a failed presidential bid, on key issues.
“This is the Council playing a much bigger role in governance and trying to resolve some issues they see that the mayor was not going to tackle,” said Jon Orcutt, a longtime transit advocate and former city transportation official.
Mr. Orcutt pointed to a younger generation of Council members who ride bikes or want new lanes in their districts, like Antonio Reynoso and Carlos Menchaca.
After the recent spate of cyclist deaths, Mr. de Blasio’s administration pledged to add 30 miles of protected bike lanes a year, up from an average of 20 miles per year over the past three years.
The Streets Master Plan calls for 30 miles of protected bike lanes in the first year and 50 miles in each subsequent year. The city must also build 20 miles of bus lanes that are protected by a barrier or camera enforcement in the first year and at least 30 miles every year after.
The idea of protected bus lanes is a new one for New York, where the Metropolitan Transportation Authority is starting to mount cameras on buses to catch vehicles blocking bus lanes and fine them. London has long used cameras mounted to buses as a way to keep its buses moving.
Under Mr. de Blasio, the city also closed 14th Street to most traffic to create a “busway” to prioritize buses and is re-timing traffic lights to give priority to cyclists instead of motorists.
The official who oversees the subway and buses, Andy Byford, said he supported Mr. Johnson’s streets plan and its focus on expanding bus lanes.

“Early results from the dedicated busway on 14th Street show the huge passenger benefits that can be gained from giving transit priority,” Mr. Byford said in a statement.
Mr. de Blasio made street safety one of his signature initiatives shortly after he took office in 2014. His plan, known as Vision Zero, aims to eliminate traffic deaths by 2024.
Vision Zero has shown progress in recent years, bringing the number of traffic fatalities down to record lows. But the rise in cyclist deaths this year has alarmed safety advocates.
Mr. de Blasio’s office said the streets plan “builds on the foundations the Mayor has built over the last several years under Vision Zero.”
But Mr. de Blasio and his transportation commissioner, Polly Trottenberg, had raised concerns about the aggressive timeline set by Mr. Johnson. Mr. de Blasio said in a radio interview last month that he agreed on the goals of the streets plan, but said it would be difficult to implement.
“I agree with him on his analysis of needing to reorient our society away from cars,” Mr. de Blasio said. “I agree with him that we need to be aggressive in terms of bike lanes and bus lanes. I think the dissonance here is about how we figure out achievable goals.”
To gain Mr. de Blasio’s support, Mr. Johnson’s office agreed to push back the start date for the first streets plan, from this month to December 2021, around the time the next mayor takes office. Until then, the city will keep its current commitment to build 30 miles of protected bike lanes each year.
At a City Council hearing in June, Ms. Trottenberg said her agency would need billions of dollars in additional funding to implement the plans, along with new staff members, offices and construction equipment.
“Achieving the targets in the bill as drafted would require a significantly reconfigured agency,” Ms. Trottenberg said.
The streets plan is expected to cost about $1.7 billion over 10 years, according to estimates from Mr. Johnson’s office.
The bill also calls for installing so-called transit signal priority at 750 intersections during the first year and 1,000 intersections per year after that. Transit signal priority is a system that allows buses to turn traffic lights green to speed them up. The city must also create one million square feet of pedestrian space in the first two years.
Mr. Orcutt, who now works at the advocacy group Bike New York, praised the plan and said it formalized the idea of a citywide, interconnected bike network into law. He said the city’s request to push back the start date was reasonable because building 50 miles of protected bike lanes per year is a significant jump from the current rate.
“It’s going to take more people and more outreach,” he said. “There are some real logistical hurdles to hitting these targets.”
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2019.12.03 15:52 kawaiisovietball Know Your Shipfu - 013

Know Your Shipfu - 013
#Know_your_shipfu - 013
HMS Glasgow (C21) - The Scottish (Careless) Maid
I. Overview
HMS Glasgow (C21) was a Southampton-subclass, Town-class light cruiser of the Tea Royal Navy and the 7th ship to hear the name. As opposed to some of her fellow mates, Glasgow was a more careless maid as she accidentally sank 2 friendly ships (think twice if anyone is looking to appoint her to be the chief maid). However, she did take part in many actions in the Atlantic as well as in the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Together with many of her sisters, Glasgow was put into reserve after the war before being scrapped in the late 50s.
II. Specifications
1. Name Glasgow
2. Namesake City of Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
3. Class Town
4. Subclass Southampton
5. Motto "Memor es tuorum" - "Be mindful of your ancestors"
6. Type Light cruiser (CL)
7. Laid down April 17, 1935 at Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Greenock, UK
8. Launched June 20, 1936
9. Commissioned September 9, 1937
10. Struck March 1958
11. Fate Scrapped July 8, 1958
12. Displacement 9,100 tons
13. Propulsion 4x Admiralty 3-drum boilers. Four-shaft Parsons geared turbines
14. Power generated 75,000 shp
15. Maximum speed 32 knots (59 kph)
16. Max. operating range Complement: 748
17. Size 1. Length: 558 ft (170 m)
2. Beam: 61 ft 8 in (18.80 m)
3. Draft: 21 ft 6 in (6.55 m)
18. Radar Type 286M -> Type 271 (1942) -> Type 283 radar (1944)
19. Main armament 4x3 BL 6-inch (152 mm) Mk XXIII guns -> 3x3 BL 6-inch (152 mm) Mk XXIII guns
20. Anti-aircraft armament 1. Large-caliber: 4x2 QF 4-inch (102 mm) Mk XVI guns
2. Medium-caliber: 2x2 QF 2-pounder (40 mm) pom-pom anti-aircraft guns -> 4x4 40 mm Bofors anti-aircraft guns (1944)
3. Small-caliber: 2x4 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) AA machine guns
21. Torpedo 2x3 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes (removed 1944)
22. Aircraft carried 2x Supermarine Walrus aircrafts (later removed)
III. Operational history
Glasgow, maybe prewar
Glasgow was ordered on December 17, 1934 at the Scotts Shipbuilding Company in Greenock as part of the Royal Navy's expansion program. She was the 7th ship to bear the name, with the first being a Scottish 6th-rate ship and the 6th one being a 1910 Town-class cruiser. She was laid down on April 16, 1935 and launched on June 20, 1936 by Mrs. Lucy Baldwin, the wife of former PM Stanley Baldwin. Glasgow-chan joined the maid team on September 9, 1937 after being completed. She was assigned to 2nd Cruiser Squadron of the Home Fleet.
Glasgow spent the first years of her career uneventful with some naval exercises and "flag showing". In May and June 1939, Glasgow and her big sister Southampton escorted liner RMS Empress of Australia carrying King George VI and Queen Elizabeth on their Royal visits to Canada and the US before escorting them back to the UK on Empress of Australia's sister, RMS Empress of Britain (both belongs to Canadian Pacific Line). In July 1939, Captain Frank Pegram was appointed the commander of the ship.
With war being inevitable, on September 2, 1939, Glasgow was detached for patrol off Norway with Humber Force to intercept commerce raiders and blockade runners. The following day, Britain declared war on Germany, and on September 4, Glasgow and J-class destroyer Jersey (has got an episode on her, I can translate it may anyone want) intercepted German freighter Johannes Molken Buhr, which was later scuttled by her own crew. Glasgow was later sent to patrol in Skaggerak with her sisters Southampton, Sheffield-chan and Arethusa-class Aurora. However, due to Javelin-chan and Jersey-chan collided with each other, the mission was cancelled and they returned to Rosyth. 4 days later, Glasgow was sent to escort damaged submarine Spearfish back to her home base, during which, Glasgow-chan was attacked by enemy aircrafts without success.
With reports of Gneisenau in the area, Glasgow escorted Hood-neesan and Repulse in search for the new German battlecruiser. While returning to Britain, Glasgow and fellow sisters Southampton and Edinburgh was attacked by Luftwaffe's aircrafts, who dropped 120 bombs on them. Fortunately, Glasgow-chan wasn't damaged. Later on, Glasgow and Edinburgh escorted convoy KJ 003 made of 19 tankers from October 22 to 24. Towards the end of November, Glasgow joined 2 destroyers in search of German liner Bremen. She was then diverted to search for escaping Scharnhorst and Gneisenau in seek of revenging the sinking of armed merchant cruiser Rawalpindi. A week later, Glasgow took part in the unsuccessful search for American merchantman City of Flint, which had been captured by Deutschland. In December 1939, she escorted three convoys: HN 003, ON 004/1, ON 006/1 with another convoy, ON 007/1 in early January.
Glasgow was transferred to another maid team, the 18th Cruiser Squadron on January 7, 1940. There, along with Newcastle, she escorted 6 convoys in January 1940. Glasgow captured German trawler Herrlichkeit off Tromsø on February 12 before returning to Belfast for repairs 5 days later, which last for a month. After repairs were completed, Glasgow-chan returned to action, just as the German was launching Operation Weserübung. On April 7, Glasgow sailed with Berwick, Portlandshire and York to intercept German warships in the area. Two days later, Glasgow-chan and her fleet was attacked by German Ju 88 and He 111 bombers off Bergen, which scored two near misses. The near misses caused minor flooding to the ship, knocking out her "A" turret and killed 2 of her crew. Things were worse for her teammates as Tribal-class destroyer leader Gurkha was sunk during the air attack. After this, Glasgow-chan was detached with Sheffield to Britain for repairs on the following day. While en route, they was involved in another air attack, with no damage sustained.
After a very short 22-hour repair, Glasgow was assigned with Sheffield and 6 Tribal-class destroyer leaders to land troops in Harstad and Namsos as part of Operation Henry and Harry. Galatea joined Glasgow and Sheffy in Operation Sickle, the landing of the 15th Infantry Brigade in Åndalsnes on April 23. 6 days later, Glasgow embarked the King of Norway, King Haakon VII and Crown Prince Olav, Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs Halvdan Kolt and Minister of Defense Birger Ljungberg. Under the escort of Jackal and Javelin-chan, Glasgow arrived in Scapa Flow on May 1. Later that week, Glasgow embarked the Royal Marines at Greenock and carried out the initial occupation of Iceland during Operation Fork. The Marines disembarked at Reykjavik on May 10, under the protection of heavy cruiser Berwick, Glasgow as well as two F-class destroyers Fearless and Fortune. They carried out patrols in Iceland before sailing back to Liverpool for some refit. During her month-long refit in Liverpool, Italy declared war on Britain, and so on June 10, Glasgow's crew captured Italian freighter Gambiano.
Underway in the Mediterrenean
Returning to action in July, Glasgow-chan joined her big sister Southampton and the Salty Sussex and Shropshire. However, in the thick (bloody) British fog off Duncansby Head on July 16, our careless little maid collided with destroyer HMS Imogen. The collision caused extensive fire abroad and heavy flooding to the little destroyer. Imogen had to be abandoned and later sank. The incident resulted in nineteen of Imogen's crew and two of Glasgow's lost their lives. After rescuing the I-class destroyer crew, Glasgow returned to Liverpool and stayed there 3 months for repairs.
Late October 1940 saw Glasgow escorting Arklolicon and Barham to Gibraltar. There, she joined Force X to transport troops to Malta. After arriving in Malta on November 7, Glasgow joined the 7th Cruiser Squadron. She screened Lusty in her raid on Italian fleet in Taranto. 3 days later, Glasgow, along with Berwick, Gloucester and HMAS Sydney landed 3,400 troops in Piraeus, Greece. Later that month and in early December, Glasgow-chan escorted convoys MW 4 and ME 4 with Force E and Force F. While anchored at Suda Bay in Crete on December 3, Glasgow was attacked by a Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 flown by Italian ace Carlo Emanuele Buscaglia. 2 torpedoes hit the British cruiser, knocking out her propellers. Therefore, Glasgow-chan was sent to Alexandria for temporary repairs in January 1941.
Damaged Glasgow was sent to the Indian Ocean in early 1941 to protecc convoys from potential enemies. On February 15, Glasgow escorted some 4 landing ships through the Suez Canal. Later on, she was deployed with Hermes, (the salty) Shropshire, Emerald and her sister Enterprise (the British E-class cruiser, not the American legend Enty or Belfast x Enty, okay?) and Australian heavy cruisers Australia and Canberra to search for German cruiser Admiral Scheer, who had just sunk Canadian freighter Canadian Cruiser and AMC HMCS Rantaupandjang (Rawalpindi's little sister). On February 22, one of Glasgow's two Walrus spotted Admiral Scheer. However, fuel shortages prevented them from chasing down the German raider. A month later, Glasgow was deployed with Caledon, two K-class destroyers and two Indian trawler to provide support for the invasion of Italian Somaliland, as part of Operation Appearance.
After the successful landing in Somaliland, Glasgow joined HMS Cornwall, Portlandshire, Phoebe and HMAS Canberra as escort for convoy WS 6 from April 10-13, later relieved by C-class cruiser Colombo. Later in April, Glasgow relieved old heavy cruiser Hawkins to escort WS 7 until May 7. Our maid was sent to search for German commerce raider Pinguin later in May. From June 1941 to February 1942, Glasgow joined in convoy defense operations and escorted convoys WS 11 and WS 12. Another friendly fire incident occurred at midnight on December 9, 1941 when our careless maid opened fire with her 6-inch on friendly Indian patrol ship Prabhavati, mistaken her for a surfacing Japanese submarine. Prabhavati was sunk and Glasgow had to rescue the ship's survivors and sent them to Bombay.
With Enterprise in Singapore, 1942
In March, Glasgow escorted convoy WS 16 with her sister Newcastle. On April 1, she was relieved by Colombo and armed merchant cruiser Aleunia so that she can move to the US for repairs in April. Arriving in Brooklyn Naval Shipyard in New York on May 6 after a passage through Mombasa, Glasgow went through a month-long repair before returning to Britain. There, she was equipped with a new Type 284 fire-control radar and Type 271 airborne warning radar. New Oerlikons were also equipped to Glasgow-chan. She returned to Britain in August and arrived at Scapa Flow on September 3, 1942.
King George VI inspecting the ship in Scapa Flow
Upon arrival, Glasgow-chan was reassigned to the 10th Cruiser Squadron of the Home Fleet and assigned to the task of escorting British convoy bound for the Soviet Union. After some period of retrain and repairs lasted until December 1942, Glasgow was ready for action by the beginning of 1943. On January 20, 1943, Glasgow-chan was deployed with Bermuda and the salty cruiser Kent (hey shikika..) to screen Convoy JW 52 and returning convoy RA 52. She then patrolled around Icelandic waters and was involved in a minor incident on February 23. While anchoring at Seidisfjord, heavy weather dragged Glasgow and she was grounded. After a short repair, Glasgow-chan escorted King George V and her sister Howe to provide distant escort for homebound convoy RA 53 from Kola Inlet. Later in March, Glasgow encountered German blockade runner Regensberg carrying rubber, tungsten and many valuable goods from Japan. Unwanted to get their valuable supplies got captured by the also material-hungering Britain, the crew of Regensberg scuttled their ship. In heavy weathers, only 6 of the runner’s crew survived and was rescued by Glasgow. After some patrols in the Arctic, Glasgow was sent to a warmer place, the Southwest Approach to hunt for German blockade runners and commerce raiders.
In Scapa Flow, date unknown, maybe during her second deployment to the Arctic in late 42- early 43
The first action where our maid was involved was some action against French coastal shipping on June 12 with Crown Colony-class cruiser Bermuda, who joined Glasgow during JW 52. A week later, Glasgow escorted carrier Archer and corvettes of Escort Group B5 to hunt for submarines from Brest. By the end of the month, Glasgow provided Ocean Escort for minelaying operation of the 1st Minelaying Squadron in Northern Barrage. In late July, Glasgow joined Canadian destroyers HMCS Athabaskan, Iroquois and Polish destroyer ORP Orkan for assault patrols in the Bay of Biscay. After operations in the Bay of Biscay, she was anchored at Devonport Dockyard for repairs that last for a month, where her Walruses and catapults got removed to make room for additional Oerlikons and she was fitted with the new Type 283 Fire-Control Radar. She also had a new commander, Captain Charles Clark. On October 26, 1943, Glasgow embarked First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham and undertake the internment of the ashes of the old First Sea Lord, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Dudley Pound, who have just passed away on October 21 off Nab Tower. After that, she participated in Operation Tunnel series of attacks on French coastal shipping in November 1943. In December, Glasgow and Gambia took part in Operation Stonewall, the interception of blockade runners returning to occupied French from Japan. After 2 weeks of patrol, a Sunderland flying boat sighted German blockade runners Alsterufer, who was carrying precious Tungsten and rubber on December 27. Thus, Glasgow, Enterprise (again the E-class), Penelope and Ariadne were sent to capture the merchantman. This would lead into the Battle of the Bay of Biscay.
Painting by Norman Wilkinson, Glasgow and Enterprise firing at German ships during The Battle of the Bay of Biscay, 1943
The Kriegsmarine sent two flotillas to escort Alsterufer home: the 4th Torpedo Boat Flotilla consisted of torpedo boats T22, T23, T24 and T26 and the 8th Destroyer Flotilla consisted of Niimi-chan and her sisters Z24, Z27, Z32, Z37 and two torpedo boats T25 and T27. By 04:00 on December 28, the two German flotillas were waiting south of Cape Clear, but Alsterufer was nowhere to be seen. Unknown to the German, the blockade runner was sunk by Liberator bombers from Czechoslovak No. 311 Squadron and the No. 86 Squadron. By midday, the two German flotillas met each other. One hour later, they were spotted by Allied aircrafts. Meanwhile, a Fw 200 Condor bomber detected Glasgow and Enterprise, and attacked them. As they were detected, Glasgow changed her course towards the Northeast. At 13:32, from a range of 16 miles, Glasgow-chan detected the German destroyers. Captain Clark ordered Glasgow to open fire at Niimi with her “A” and “B” turrets, guided by the newly installed Type 273 radar. Enterprise followed some few minutes later. In the first minutes of the battle, though being targeted, Niimi wasn't damaged. Our Soviet German protagonist launched 6 of her torpedoes at a range of 17,000 meters. Niimi-chan and her sister Z24 returned fire with their 15 cm, almost hitting Glasgow and Enterprise. At 14:05, Glasgow was hit in the “A” boiler room by either of the destroyers, killing two seamen who were manning the pom-pom and further wounded three. By 14:18, both German flotillas was involved in action. High seas prevented the torpedo boats from launching their torpedoes, so only destroyers Z32 and Z37 could launch their torpedoes at Glasgow. With 10 torpedoes heading for her, Glasgow-chan had to take evasive maneuvers. Glasgow was almost hit by a torpedo as she and Enterprise was baiting them. After the second torpedo run, the German boats laid smoke turned away.
During the Battle of the Bay of Biscay, Dec. 28 1943
At 14:35, Glasgow reversed her course to chase down the retreating German. By this time, Glasgow and Enterprise was separated after the torpedobait and was acting independently. The German launched another torpedo attack against the charging British cruisers, whilst the two British were keeping accurate 6-inch shots. At around 14:38, after firing her first salvo of torpedoes, Z27 was critically damaged by a 6-inch shell from Enterprise, causing fire and slowing the German destroyer down. After being hit, Z27 launched the second salvo of 4 torpedoes, however, just like the first salvo, no torpedoes hit the British cruisers.
Meanwhile, Glasgow was concentrating her fire on torpedo boat T25. The little *Elbing-*class torpedo boat was hit in her aft torpedo tubes area, killing many of her crew. A second shell hit T25’s funnel, immobilize her. Being a sitting duck at that moment, T25 requested her big sis T22 to cover for her. In the meantime, Glasgow shifted fire towards T25’s sister, T26. T26 was bracketed by near misses from the accurate radar-guided guns from Glasgow and was critically hit with a shell right into her boiler room at 14:40, slowing the ship down. T22, trying to help her crippled sister, was focused by Enterprise, who hit her with shells and fragments from the near misses. After firing her 10.5 cm guns and all of her torpedoes, which proved harmless to the cruisers, T22 laid smoke and retreated.
Enterprise finished off the crippled T26 at 14:45 with a single torpedo whereas Glasgow hit Z27’s magazine at point-blank range, sinking the drifting destroyer in a large magazine explosion which killed most of her staff. Enterprise fired her guns and a torpedo, which reduce T25 to a burning and sinking wreck by 14:50. The British cruisers, low on ammunition and fuel, withdrew towards Plymouth.
The Battle of the Bay of Biscay was a complete victory for the British. Glasgow and Enterprise sank a destroyer (Z27) and two torpedo boats (T25 and T26) and further severely damaged another TB, T22 while receiving minimal damage to themselves. 532 Kriegsmarine’s sailors were killed during the battle, further lowering Kriegsmarine's morale after Scharnhorst was sunk in the Battle of the North Cape 2 days earlier. The failure in Bay of Biscay and North Cape marked a sour end of 1943 for the German. From then on, in addition to the lost of 3 blockade runners in the South Atlantic, Germany could only trade with her only real ally, Japan, via small little submarines, hampering her supplies.
After the Battle of the Bay of Biscay, Glasgow and Enterprise withdrew to Britain. En route, they were attacked by He 177 armed with Fritz-X Glider bomb on December 28. Neither of the ship was hit, however. They arrived at Plymouth the following day. Glasgow was repaired for some weeks before returning to defend convoys MKF 026, MKF 028A and MKF 029 from mid January to mid-March.
Bombarding Cherbourg, June 25, 1944. USS Quincy in the background
In April, Glasgow joined US Western Task Force consisted of USN battleships Texas and Arkansas, Free French cruiser Montcalm and Georges Leygues, nine USN destroyers and three Royal Navy Hunt-class destroyers. During Operation Neptune, they took part in bombardment exercises in Cape Wrath. On D-Day (June 6, 1944), Glasgow took part in the bombardment of the Omaha Beach with ships of Force C. She continued this action until June 20, when her squadron was detached to bombard the port of Cherbourg. After returning to Portland on the following day, Glasgow again joined her peer Enterprise, US battleship Shounen Nevada and two Pacific veteran Tuscaloosa and Quincy in Task Force 129. Together, they carried out the bombardment of Cherbourg on June 25, which Glasgow was hit by two shells from shore batteries, damaging her electrical system. On June 30, Glasgow withdrew to Belfast for a nine-month-long refit. During the time, Glasgow-chan was fitted with new radars and additional anti-aircraft armament. Her “X” turret was removed in favour of additional Bofors.
After a long refit, Glasgow was back in action by May 1945. By this time, Germany had surrendered, so she was transferred to the Indian Ocean to fight the already desperate Japanese Empire. On August 22, 1945, Glasgow sailed with Jamaica to the British East Indies Fleet. By this time, Japan had got nuked and was preparing for surrender.
On October 5, 1945, Glasgow relieved Phoebe as the flagship of the 5th Cruiser Squadron. After serving in the Indian Ocean for two years, she steamed back to Portsmouth and was put into reserve. Later in September 1948, after being recommissioned for active service, Glasgow was appointed the flagship of the British West Indies Station. She attended the Halifax bicentenary celebrations in Nova Scotia in 1949. In October 1950, she returned to Britain and was refitted at Chatham before being transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet in 1951. Glasgow was appointed the flagship of the Malta station, under Admiral the Earl Mountbatten of Burma.
Lord Mountbatten aboard Glagow, 1952
2 years later, she and her crew took part in film “Sailor of the King” as the fictional cruiser HMS Cambridge. In the same year, Glasgow-chan took part in the Fleet Review to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. Together with Town-class cruisers Gambia and Bermuda, new cruiser Eagle, seven destroyers, Glasgow-chan escorted the Queen and Duke of Edinburgh aboard Royal Yacht HMY Britannia on their world tour when they arrived at Malta on May 2, 1954. With Gambia, she took part in the withdrawal of the 40th Royal Marines Commando Brigade from Port Said, Sudan, giving the independence to the African nation.
In 1955, after 5 years of serving in Malta, Glasgow returned to Britain and joined the Flag Officer D Flotilla of the Home Fleet. In late 1955, Glasgow-chan was decommissioned in Portsmouth. However, with the Suez Canal Crisis in 1956, she was temporary called back before being officially decommissioned in November 1956. Glasgow was considered a surplus at the time of economic hardship and the budget was tight, so she was put on the disposal list in March 1958. In July 4, 1958, Glasgow was sold to BISCO for scrapping and left Portsmouth. She was broken up on July 8, 1958 at Hughes Bolckow’s yard in Blyth.
IV. In Azur Lane
In-game Glasgow
Glasgow was put into the game in the mid-November update. She is a Rare ship which can be obtained through the Light Construction Pool with a build time of 01:25:00. Upon her introduction, there was a short period when her Construction Rate was increased for 2.5%. Glasgow is still unvoiced.
Similar to most light cruiser, Glasgow-chan has three equipment slots for CL Guns (115%->135%), Torpedoes (120%->130% and Anti-Air Guns (110%) . Glasgow has two class-specified Assault Skills: “Full Firepower” which increase her own firepower and “All Out Barrage” which triggers her class’ barrage. She also has a Defensive Skill, “Swift Defender” (related to the fact that she defended many convoys?) which reduces damage dealt to the fleet.
In the wiki, there is something wrong with the translation of her Self Intro line as Glasgow could never taken part in the Battle of the North Cape, as she was busy fighting the German destroyers off France when the battle occurred. Also in her Self-Intro, she mentioned having bad eyesight, related to the fact that she rammed and sank Imogen in foggy weather and mistook Prabhavati for a Japanese loliboat. (So, buy her glass :> ). Secretary 1 and 2 referred to her sisters Newcastle and Sheffield. Glasgow also have Additional Lines when sortieing with her sisters Sheffield, Edinburgh, Belfast, Newcastle and her big sis Southampton.
(Low resolution) \"A Maid In Class\" skin
Glasgow has got a skin, “A Maid In Class” for 780 green Jap cats (u know wot oi mean.)
V. Sources
1. References
Soft reference: Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Glasgow_%28C21%29
Detailed service log: Naval History http://www.naval-history.net/xGM-Chrono-06CL-Glasgow.htm
2. In Azur Lane
Default skin https://blhx.fandom.com/wiki/Glasgow?file=Glasgow.png
"A Maid in Class" skin https://azurlane.koumakan.jp/Glasgow/Gallery#A_Maid_in_Class
3. IRL
Prewar https://www.naval-history.net/Photo06clGlasgow1NP.jpg
King on board https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:HMS_Glasgow_(C21)#/media/File:HMS_Glasgow_visit.jpg#/media/File:HMS_Glasgow_visit.jpg)
During Bay of Biscay, 1943 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:HMS_Glasgow_(C21)#/media/File:The_Royal_Navy_during_the_Second_World_War_HMS_Glasgow_4-inch_AA_gun_crew_A_21143.jpg#/media/File:The_Royal_Navy_during_the_Second_World_War_HMS_Glasgow_4-inch_AA_gun_crew_A_21143.jpg)
Mediterreanean https://alchetron.com/HMS-Glasgow-(C21)#demo#demo)
Singapore, 1942 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:HMS_Glasgow_(C21)#/media/File:HMS_Glasgow_and_Enterprise_Singapore_1942_AWM_302397.jpeg#/media/File:HMS_Glasgow_and_Enterprise_Singapore_1942_AWM_302397.jpeg)
Norway https://i.pinimg.com/originals/a6/11/44/a6114407c6f36b73ffe611298f59ae69.jpg
Cherbourg https://www.dday-overlord.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/hms_glasgow-1.jpg
Biscay drawing, 1943 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_the_Bay_of_Biscay#/media/File:Nmm_nmmg_bhc0686_large(2).jpg.jpg)
Postwar, 1952 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:HMS_Glasgow_(C21)#/media/File:HMS_Glasgow_Mounbatten.jpg#/media/File:HMS_Glasgow_Mounbatten.jpg)
submitted by kawaiisovietball to AzureLane [link] [comments]


2019.10.23 21:00 DangerDylan [Wednesday, 23. October]

World News

Hong Kong officially kills China extradition bill that sparked months of violent protests
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US Ambassador Testifies Trump Directly Tied Ukraine Funding to Biden Investigation
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NBA's Shaquille O'Neal: 'Daryl Morey was right' to back pro-democracy Hong Kong protests
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All news, US and international.

Hong Kong formally withdrawals extradition bill.
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2 Proud Boys members sentenced to 4 years over NYC melee
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"Daryl Morey was right": Shaq speaks out on NBA-China controversy
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Science

A species of crab can learn to navigate a maze and still remember it up to two weeks later. The discovery shows that crustaceans, which include crabs, lobsters and shrimp, have the cognitive capacity for complex learning, even though they have much smaller brains than other animals, such as bees.
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Google has officially laid claim to quantum supremacy. The quantum computer Sycamore reportedly performed a calculation that even the most powerful supercomputers available couldn’t reproduce.
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A team of astronomers reports today that they have by chance discovered faint traces of a huge galaxy never seen before, dating from the early universe. The scientific community once regarded such monster galaxies as folklore because there was no evidence for them, until now.
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/Technology

Facebook is ‘the biggest threat’ to US democracy, Cambridge Analytica whistleblower says
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Ajit Pai wants to abolish federalism so Verizon and AT&T can throttle your data
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Comcast Is Lobbying Against Encryption That Could Prevent it From Learning Your Browsing History
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Sadly, this is not the Onion.

‘We don’t want to con anyone’: Inventor charging $50,000 for rain denies ‘preying’ on farmers
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Bronx Residents Are Warning Tourists To Stay Away From “Joker Stairs”
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Georgia sheriff's 'No Trick-or-Treat' signs trigger lawsuit from sex offenders
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Ask Reddit...

How did you get your scars?
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What were some times when you died inside?
Comments
What is your favorite video game quote?
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Sysadmin

FYI: Microsoft set to introduce 'self-service purchase' in Office 365
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What are your sysadmin "first world problems"?
Comments
It has been a while!
Comments

Microsoft SQL Server

Online migration
Comments
Select Subquery in query with many rows of results?
Comments
Is there no designer support for memory optimized tables in SSMS?
Comments

PowerShell

Script as a service (native)
Comments
Variable in hash
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Running Script issue, works with copy and paste to console
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Functional 3D Printing

Not mine design, but very functional cap for washer tank in my car =)
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My new 3D-Printed Mercedes AMG GT3 wheel for Simracing
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Clothing hangers that fit in the closet door.
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Data Is Beautiful

Two month job search as a new-graduate Registered Nurse [OC]
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[OC] Speed of Sound
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Number of superhero movies released by year (1944-2019) [OC]
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Today I Learned (TIL)

TIL A moment was a medieval measurement of time and corresponded to 90 seconds.
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TIL that John Newton was the captain of a slave ship. In 1748 he encountered a severe storm and, although being non-religious, prayed out to God for safety. This event changed his life. He later became a clergy member, an abolitionist, and wrote the hymn "Amazing Grace" about his experience.
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TIL that fighting words, or "words which by their very utterance, inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace", are not protected under the first amendment.
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So many books, so little time

The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy appreciation (does contain some spoilers)
Comments
Review: 'MindF*ck: Cambridge Analytica and the Plot to Break America'
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'Animals feared him': fake David Cameron memoir cover spotted in bookshop
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OldSchoolCool: History's cool kids, looking fantastic

Mark Hamill and Carrie Fisher (1977)
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Susan Kare, the graphic designer who created many of the interface elements and typefaces for the Apple Macintosh in the 1980s.
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The Amazing Peg Bundy (Katey Sagal) - 1989
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aviation

Not many people know about the shortened version of the Queen of the Skies - the 747SP (special performance). It was shortened to decrease weight and increase range. SAA used them to fly around the bulge of Africa during apartheid because African countries would not let SAA enter their airspace.
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The A-12's bare titanium still shines through a layer of ash and city grime
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Super Sabre
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Reddit Pics

Brexit in one picture.
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NSFW - The funeral of Emmett Till, a black 14-year-old boy boy who was falsely accused of sexual harassment by a white woman in Mississippi and then brutally lynched. His mother held an open casket funeral to show the world what American racism is.
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My oil painting of X-Wing StarFighters
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.gifs - funny, animated gifs for your viewing pleasure

Kid baits NBA camera and flashes free Hong Kong shirt
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Roundabout
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Dogged perseverance
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A subreddit for cute and cuddly pictures

Fifteen years later, still best friends.
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I brought home a stray cat when I was 17 years old. I'm 36 now. Every time I go to my parents house, I check to make sure he is still there and give him some extra love before I leave. Meet Scooter.
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Nobody does comfort like roof cat.
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submitted by DangerDylan to DangerDylanTLDR [link] [comments]


2019.09.21 23:24 Diotoiren [TECH] Expanding the Exemplar series of vehicles, and quantum technologies.

The CAUK-Joint Development Bureau has collectively agreed that expansions to the LAV VII "Exemplar" as being the right move. Note we will only be listing notable changes on a per vehicle basis. Followed by a list of standard applications. (Also note, expansion to the Paragon MBT series will also occur at a later date.)
Exemplar VII family of vehicles (Tentative unit cost is going to be around $3-$5 million mark, official when UK/AU modifications are added)
AFV VII "Lightning"
Specifications
Mass: 16.1 t
Length: 22 ft 2 in
Width: 8 ft 9 in
Height: 8 ft 6 in
Crew/Troop Capacity: 3
Description (Size/Weight): The overall mass and size has been reduced by significant margins when totaled, thereby vastly increasing speed and mobility. Due to improved armour and armour materials, the vehicle does not sacrifice in the way of protection, and in fact is better protected then the LAV 6 design and any other current/next generation designs.
Armour: 55 mm resistance in most places. Up to 500mm resistance in the turret area. (Reactive armour tiles, composite materials, composite reactive tiles)
Dynamic Armour provides additional resistance and protection from shaped charge weapons.
Description (Armour): The AFV VII "Lightning" utilizes a multi-stage armour design, which includes classified newly developed composite materials (CHOBHAM related), and the UK based Dynamic Armour system. This provides next level protection. Furthermore Depleted Uranium armour can be found on either side of the main gun on the turret.
Main Armaments: GDC-C C5IC (Canada-5 Iron Cannon). (120 mm (4.72 in) 55 caliber smoothbore gun.
Secondary Armaments: Nanuk Mk.2 Remotely Controlled Weapon Station (Described further below), mounted with a 12.7 mm heavy machine gun, 40 mm grenade launcher, C41 Irukandji ATGM.
Tertiary Armaments: 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun, 8x 76-mm grenade launchers in two clusters of four launchers positioned on each side of the turret (used for smoke grenades).
Description (Armaments): The AFV VII "Lightning" utilizes a wide variety of new weaponry, of which most can be found described below. As this is an armoured fighting vehicle, the primary goal is to be successful against fighting armour. The GDC-C C5IC allows flexibility for taking on vehicles up to heavy armour (MBTs). The increased range also allows this vehicle to take on small UAV targets. Furthermore the Nanuk Mk.2 RWS allows for increased capabilities against enemy infantry position through the use of a 12.7 mm HMG and 40 mm grenade launcher. Furthermore the already strong anti-armor gun is enhanced even further by the C41 Irukandji which can launch off the Nanuk Mk.2 for greater anti-tank and anti-heavy armoured vehicles.
Engine: GDC C9 Engine (Described further below)
Suspension: 8x8 wheeled
Operational Range: 700 km
Speed: Capable of reaching over 100 km on "best terrain"
SPG VII "Thunder"
Specifications
Mass: 16.5 t
Length: 22 ft 2 in
Width: 8 ft 9 in
Height: 8 ft 6 in
Crew/Troop Capacity: 3
Description (Size/Weight): The overall mass and size has been reduced by significant margins when totaled, thereby vastly increasing speed and mobility. Due to improved armour and armour materials, the vehicle does not sacrifice in the way of protection, and in fact is better protected then the LAV 6 design and any other current/next generation designs.
Armour: 25 mm resistance in most places. Up to 100mm resistance in the turret area. (Reactive armour tiles, composite materials, composite reactive tiles)
Dynamic Armour provides additional resistance and protection from shaped charge weapons.
Description (Armour): The SPG VII "Thunder" utilizes a multi-stage armour design, which includes classified newly developed composite materials (CHOBHAM related), and the UK based Dynamic Armour system. This provides next level protection. Furthermore Depleted Uranium armour can be found on either side of the main gun on the turret.
Main Armaments: GDC-C C5SPG (Canada-5 Self-propelled gun). (155mm firing all forms of ammunition including the "bluenose" and "silverside")
Secondary Armaments: Nanuk Mk.2 Remotely Controlled Weapon Station (Described further below), mounted with a 12.7 mm heavy machine gun, 40 mm grenade launcher, C41 Irukandji ATGM.
Tertiary Armaments: 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun, 8x 76-mm grenade launchers in two clusters of four launchers positioned on each side of the turret (used for smoke grenades).
Description (Armaments): The SPG VII "Thunder" utilizes a wide variety of new weaponry, of which most can be found described below. As this is a self-propelled gun, the primary goal is to be successful in supporting forces with fire. The GDC-C C5SPG allows flexibility for taking on vehicles up to heavy armour (MBTs). The increased range also allows this vehicle to take on small UAV targets. Furthermore the Nanuk Mk.2 RWS allows for increased capabilities against enemy infantry position through the use of a 12.7 mm HMG and 40 mm grenade launcher. Furthermore the already strong anti-armor gun is enhanced even further by the C41 Irukandji which can launch off the Nanuk Mk.2 for greater anti-tank and anti-heavy armoured vehicles.
Engine: GDC C9 Engine (Described further below)
Suspension: 8x8 wheeled
Operational Range: 700 km
Speed: Capable of reaching over 100 km on "best terrain"
APC VII "Battle Bus"
Specifications
Mass: 15.8 t
Length: 22 ft 2 in
Width: 8 ft 9 in
Height: 8 ft 6 in
Crew/Troop Capacity: 3/12
Description (Size/Weight): The overall mass and size has been reduced by significant margins when totaled, thereby vastly increasing speed and mobility. Due to improved armour and armour materials, the vehicle does not sacrifice in the way of protection, and in fact is better protected then the LAV 6 design and any other current/next generation designs.
Armour: 45 mm resistance in most places. Up to 200mm resistance in the turret area. (Reactive armour tiles, composite materials, composite reactive tiles)
Dynamic Armour provides additional resistance and protection from shaped charge weapons.
Description (Armour): The APC VII "Battle Bus" utilizes a multi-stage armour design, which includes classified newly developed composite materials (CHOBHAM related), and the UK based Dynamic Armour system. This provides next level protection. Furthermore Depleted Uranium armour can be found on either side of the main gun on the turret.
Main Armaments: GDC-CC "Fjord" Mk.3A autocannon
Secondary Armaments: Nanuk Mk.2 Remotely Controlled Weapon Station (Described further below), mounted with a 12.7 mm heavy machine gun, 40 mm grenade launcher, C41 Irukandji ATGM.
Tertiary Armaments: 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun, 8x 76-mm grenade launchers in two clusters of four launchers positioned on each side of the turret (used for smoke grenades).
Description (Armaments): The APC VII "Battle Bus" combines firepower and troop carrying capabilities. Basically another form of IFV, it's primary focus is however troop carrying capabilities and its overall range reflects that. The increased range also allows this vehicle to take on small UAV targets. Furthermore the Nanuk Mk.2 RWS allows for increased capabilities against enemy infantry position through the use of a 12.7 mm HMG and 40 mm grenade launcher. Furthermore the already strong anti-armor gun is enhanced even further by the C41 Irukandji which can launch off the Nanuk Mk.2 for greater anti-tank and anti-heavy armoured vehicles.
Engine: GDC C9 Engine (Described further below)
Suspension: 8x8 wheeled
Operational Range: 800 km
Speed: Capable of reaching over 100 km on "best terrain"
HIFV VII "Warrior"
Specifications
Mass: 42 t
Length: 25 ft 2 in
Width: 10 ft 9 in
Height: 8 ft 6 in
Crew/Troop Capacity: 3/12
Description (Size/Weight): The overall mass and size has been increased largely through the addition of increased armor and weaponry.
Armour: Up to 2000mm resistance in the turret area, average of 1000mm resistance elsewhere. (Reactive armour tiles, composite materials, composite reactive tiles)
Dynamic Armour provides additional resistance and protection from shaped charge weapons.
Description (Armour): The HIFV VII "Warrior" utilizes a multi-stage armour design, which includes classified newly developed composite materials (CHOBHAM related), and the UK based Dynamic Armour system. This provides next level protection. Furthermore Depleted Uranium armour can be found on either side of the main gun on the turret.
Main Armaments:GDC-CC "Jasper" Mk.4 autocannon
Secondary Armaments: Nanuk Mk.2 Remotely Controlled Weapon Station (Described further below), mounted with a 12.7 mm heavy machine gun, 40 mm grenade launcher, C41 Irukandji ATGM.
Tertiary Armaments: 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun, 8x 76-mm grenade launchers in two clusters of four launchers positioned on each side of the turret (used for smoke grenades).
Description (Armaments): The HIFV VII "Warrior" combines firepower and troop carrying capabilities. Basically a hybrid armoured fighting vehicle and IFV, the heavy IFV "Warrior" is primarily designed to support troops by fire, while being capable of tackling enemy vehicles. The increased range also allows this vehicle to take on small UAV targets. Furthermore the Nanuk Mk.2 RWS allows for increased capabilities against enemy infantry position through the use of a 12.7 mm HMG and 40 mm grenade launcher. Furthermore the already strong anti-armor gun is enhanced even further by the C41 Irukandji which can launch off the Nanuk Mk.2 for greater anti-tank and anti-heavy armoured vehicles.
Engine: GDC C9 Engine (Described further below)
Suspension: 8x8 wheeled
Operational Range: 700 km
Speed: Capable of reaching over 100 km on "best terrain"
Additional Systems and information on all vehicles
Network and Software supplied by GD-Canada
Networked into GPS and British Positioning System, with room for a third
Automatic Vehicle Health Management System (AVHMS) (Info below)
Pattern-Recognition System 2 (info below)
Ability to network with infantry IAMTD and Raven Drone Systems
Imperator Class Active Protection System (Info Below)
Ability to network with Morpheus Tactical Communication Systems, Watchkeeper Systems.
Heating and Air conditioning systems for any environment.
Clean Air Filter System (As seen on LAV 6)
Automatic Fire extinguishing system (with sensors in the engine, crew and troop compartments, that activate one or more halon fire bottles. Can also be activated by the driver.
CBRN Warfare System
Externally mounted fuel tanks
Double V shaped hull
Low profile solar panels for charging non-essential electronics
Automatic Loading Systems
All forms of stabilized optics (infared, day/night, all weather, etc)
Weaponry in development
GDC-C C5SPG (Canada-5 Self-propelled gun)
Barrel Length: 5.4 m
Caliber: 155 mm
Range: 40 km
ROF: 6 rpm
GDC-CC "Fjord" Mk.3A autocannon
Barrel Length: 94.9 inches
Shell: 30x173mm or 40x180mm
Caliber: 30 mm
ROF: 200 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity: 1200 metres per second
Effective firing range: 3,500 metres
  • Costs: $8 billion development, building on the already existing development.
  • Completion: Roughly the same time as the Exemplar, 2028/29.
Joint Canada-United Kingdom Quantum Development Center
D-Wave Systems and anything related to it, has been acquired by the Canadian government. In cooperation with British owned Cambridge Quantum Computing and the UK National Quantum Technology Program, the D-Wave Systems will be continuing to build on already existing quantum computing capabilities. (Note this is being done outside of the CAUK. And is a sole Canada-UK joint venture).
D-Wave Systems in cooperation with the aforementioned British owned companies will be developing and integrating Quantum technologies into all aspects of Canadian-British networks/software. This includes quantum computers and data transmission networks, communications, quantum radars, Canadian/British internet, business/financial software/networks, and all aspects of military hardware used by Canada and Britain.
Furthermore it will be integrated into Canadian and British series of the FSP and all current/future military technologies operated or developed by British/Canadian projects.
The integration of quantum technologies into Canadian and British networks will create a level of cohesiveness between our forces never seen before.
D-Wave Systems has also already begun the process of developing quantum computers in the pursuit of AI, having developed and sold systems to NASA for that exact purpose. Therefore Canada and the UK will be creating their own "Institute for the development of Artificial Intelligence", which will seek to use quantum computing to develop artificial intelligence to be used in a variety of ways. Goals for the Canada-UK AI program include, self learning capabilities, high level intelligence equal or beyond human level, use of quantum computing for high level calculations, "sentience"?.
  • Cost: $25 billion (split between Canada/UK)
  • Full Quantum Integration: 2033 (For UK/Canada) (Radar in 2035)
  • Development of AI: 2033 (No sentience however at this point)
submitted by Diotoiren to worldpowers [link] [comments]


2019.09.12 10:05 Shreemoon My Intern Experience

My Intern Experience
Shreemoon Rajbhandari
My Intern Experience
During my time as an undergraduate, one of the key experiences recommended is to do an internship. Gaining work experience as an intern overseas will improve a skill set in my area of interest. Working somewhere as culturally different and economically significant as China is a talking point in any interviews. There are many reasons that made me choose to do an internship in China. Definitively the best part of the experience has been living out of your comfort zone. Encountering new situations and experiences, that increase my self awareness, my capabilities and also to discover my weaknesses.
Over the past 2 years, we have seen many digital currencies/cryptocurrencies being introduced globally.These have added the aspect of using this financial ecosystem to eventually solve social issues. This could be the application of Blockchain technology in areas like logistics/supply chain to food security. Eventually, there would be many more areas where blockchain and related technology developers would be needed. It's emerging to change the way we solve the many roadblocks that we face.
Blockchain is considered to be one of the most trending topics. This is the right time for me to learn about the technology and start implementing. Blockchain is a notion that can be implemented directly or indirectly to any sector as such. Only two months prior, I had a minimal amount of knowledge about blockchain innovation, and my insight into blockchain comprised distinctly of an obscure comprehension of bitcoin and cryptographic money all in all.
During my internship, I was given investigation material to help assemble my base comprehension of Loopring and the blockchain innovation that it depends on. In the wake of beginning at Loopring, I have been given significantly more prominent chance to learn. While my comprehension of blockchain is still new, it has improved extensively since my first day at the organisation.
In this post, I would like to talk about two cryptographic methods aiming to give privacy to blockchain technology ; the zk-SNARKS and zk-STARKS protocols are two significant examples. We will look into their advantages and disadvantages, comparison between two protocols, and conclusion.
ZK-SNARKS vs ZK-STARKS
Along with the countless benefits of the Internet from which we can benefit, when we use it for social media or business company purposes, privacy is at greater risk. Approximately 90 million of Facebook users information were damaged by Cambridge Analytical data. The Wall Street stated that “ this is just the beginning, and the results are expected to grow”. The Equifax data breach revealed information on social media channels from private users. Thus, birth dates were exposed to the majority of the populations. Due to the Uber hack, data from over 55 million customers were also shared and exposed.
Privacy has consistently been seen as a valuable element within the cryptocurrency community. There is always a growing focus on improving privacy within the cryptocurrency space. Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin and many other cryptocurrencies are all actively searching for the most convenient approaches to increase their security. It is the antecedent to fungibility, which is vital for a broadly used form of money. Additionally, most crypto-asset holders do not want their transaction history to be completely public to the world. Among the different cryptographic methods aiming to give privacy to blockchain technology; the zk-SNARK and zk-STARKS protocols are two main significant examples.
Two leading technologies today offer their cryptocurrencies - Monero and zcash— and strive to address protection issues. Monero uses the technology of Ring Confidential Signature. By contrast, Z-Cash uses zk-SNARK( Zero-Knowledge transparent knowledge argument), a technology that provides the ability to conduct anonymous transactions.
In recent years, zk-SNARKS has exploded as the most promising technology to solve blockchain privacy. It is a technology derived from proofs of zero-knowledge, a type of proof that anyone with a verification key can check this “proof” without disclosing the information itself. If the statement holds, a verifier will be convinced by a correct proof. If the statement is false, it is true that no prover can convince a verified statement.
zk-SNARK stands for :
- Zero-knowledge : if the statement is true, there is nothing the verifier learns beyond the fact that the statement is true.
- Succinct : The proof size needs to be small enough in a few milliseconds to be verified.
- Non-interactive :Only one set of information is sent to the verifier for verification, therefore there is no back and forth communication between the prover and verifier.
- Argument of Knowledge : A computationally soundproof: soundness runs counter to a prover leveraging polynomial-time, i.e. limited computing. Also, Without access to the witness (the private input needed to prove the statement), the evidence can not be constructed.
zk-SNARKS aims to provide fast, scalable solutions to ensure financial security. Therefore, transaction encryption is possible.When zk-SNARK is applied to a cryptocurrency, it implies you can conceal the majority of the transaction data information. This incorporates the sender address, collector address, just as the transaction sum amount. zk-SNARKS enables us to shroud the majority of this data information, while likewise enabling the system to affirm and verify the transactions. It amplifies security while maintaining consensus. In the realm of blockchain, it is one of the most exceptional blockchain level protection innovation being used.
With the launch of version 3.0, Loopring’s decentralised protocol solution struck a noteworthy milestone in early May- adding off-chain scaling and fee optimisation using zk-SNARKs. Low fees, liquidity, transparency and security are the key goal of the loopring solution. Loopring says the new Loopring 3.0 based zk-SNARK will increase trade speeds and on-chain activity efficiency tenfold. The data previously stored on-chain in Loopring 3.0 is now stored off-chain in a Merkle tree and then used as required in zk-SNARKS, updating the tree.
Be that as it may, there are a few issues with zk-SNARKS. The main problem has been the need for a trusted setup. zk-SNARKS rely on a permission private key. This essentially undermines the entire purpose of decentralised public blockchain. By introducing the need to trust a person rather than code, you threaten the entire concept of trustlessness. In theory, a prover with sufficient computational power could create fake proofs, and this is one of the reasons why many consider quantum computers as a threat to zk-SNARKs (and blockchain systems).
Last year zk-SNARKS were incorporated on a MIT Tech Review list of the top 10 Breakthrough Technologies of 2018 among AI advancements. zk-SNARKS allows both a tremendous speedup in verifying the correctness of a computation while at the same time it hides the private details from prying eyes. Some of the potential uses citied in MIT article were verifying you’re over 18 without having to share your date of birth, and providing you have a enough money in your back account as collateral without having to give away account details like your exact balance. It establishes trust which you need to interact on the blockchain. Zk-SNARK proofs are as of now being used on Zcash, on JP Morgan Pursue's blockchain-based payment system, and as an approach to safely validate customers to servers.
The more developed version of zk-SNARKS is called zk-STARKS which stands for :
Zero-Knowledge
Scalable
Transparent
Argument of Knowledge
zk-STARKS verifications are currently being touted as the better than ever form of the convention, tending to a considerable lot of the past disadvantages of zk-SNARKs. It has demonstrated an approach to accomplish a similar degree of privacy as zk-SNARKS without the requirement for the trusted setup. Starks are practically superior to Snarks as they require weaker crypto suppositions, they don't require a trusted setup and are post-quantum resistant. zk-SNARKs are based on Elliptic-Curve Cryptography, which is susceptible to advances in Quantum-Computers. zk-STARKs, on the other hand are Post-Quantum system meaning that even if Quantum-computers become powerful and ubiquitous they will not have an advantage, compared to classical computers, in breaking zk-STARKs. Anyway they have a noteworthy downside, as in the proof being too enormous. Their problem is their storage requirements. STARKs are doubly scalable, which means the proof verification is exponentially faster than the original computation’s time but the drawback is the size of the proof they create being too large, possibly 2 or 3 orders of magnitude more than those produced by zk-SNARKs. One example : StarkWare solves the inherent problems of scalability and privacy of blockchains. Using STARK technology, they generate a full proof-stack to produce and verify computer integrity tests. They utilise STARKs to batch transactions into a single proof that is verified on Ethereum. Matt Taylor states that the present iteration of StarkDEX demonstrates the viability of using STARKs for the scalability of Layer-2 by showing a substantial rise in the amount of blockchain transaction.
The idea of zk-STARKS was proposed by Eli-Ben Sasson, a professor at the Technion-Israel institute of Technology. zk-STARKS provide proofs that can be verified a lot quicker than zk-SNARKS. At the present time, Z-cash and Ethereum are on the whole considering to utilize zk-STARKS. zk-STARKS have solved the trusted setup issue. They have totally expel the requirement for multiple parties to create the private key required for the string. Rather everything needed to produce the proofs is public and the verifications are generated from arbitrary numbers. zk-STARKS actually removed the necessity in zk-SNARKS for unbalanced cryptography and rather utilizes the hash fuctions like those found in Bitcoin mining. In addition, they ought to have longer timeframe of realistic usability as far as their crytographic resilience than zk-SNARKS. However, there are some impediment of zk-STARKS, the main issue with zk-STARKS is their size. The verifications it uses are basically too enormous to use in many blockchains as they stand. As indicated by Vitalik Buterin, zk-STARKS will result in proofs of a couple of hundreds kilobytes versus the 288 bytes seen in zk-SNARKS.

The Difference Between zk-STARKS and zk-SNARKS.

https://preview.redd.it/k1fap29yd4m31.png?width=411&format=png&auto=webp&s=769ef7be2646a2d0ac31a5334f7e7249e2e2e246

Source : The Medium - Coinmonks
The complexity of communication : With the computation’s expanded complexity, the zk-SNARKS communication complexity also increases linearly, whereas zk-STARKs develops in the opposite direction and grows slowly as the computation size grows.The graph above shows that the communication required by the zk-STARKs to complete the calculation rises much slower than zk-snarks as the underlying evidence increases in complexity.

Source : The Medium - Coinmonks
The complexity of the verifier : zk-STARKs slightly widening with the development in computation size. On the other side, for confirmation evidence, zk-SNARKs requires less time than zk-STARKs. zk-STARKs, for instance need up to 100 ms to verify and zk-SNARKs need only up to 10ms. The graph above illustrates the the time taken by the zk-STARK to verify an evidence rises very slowly compared to the zk-SNARK as the underlying evidence increases in complexity.

Overall these two protocols have excellent potential in the cryptocurrency globe and can be a breakthrough avenue for mainstream implementation. Both conventions are truly needed steps to protect our privacy.


Reference
https://www.technologyreview.com/lists/technologies/2018/
https://www.google.co.uk/amp/s/themerkle.com/mit-review-acclaims-zk-snarks-but-zk-starks-may-steal-the-show/amp/
https://ethereum.stackexchange.com/questions/59145/zk-snarks-vs-zk-starks-vs-bulletproofs-updated
https://www.binance.vision/blockchain/zk-snarks-and-zk-starks-explained?amp=1
https://applicature.com/blog/blockchain-technology/can-zk-snarks-and-zk-starks-solve-privacy-issues
https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/046.pdf
https://medium.com/coinmonks/zk-starks-create-verifiable-trust-even-against-quantum-computers-dd9c6a2bb13d
https://blog.0xproject.com/starkdex-bringing-starks-to-ethereum-6a03fffc0eb7
submitted by Shreemoon to loopringorg [link] [comments]


2019.07.31 21:00 DangerDylan [Wednesday, 31. July]

World News

Tourists urged not to ride elephants in Thailand as disturbing photos reveal how elephants are tortured for entertainment.
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Cambridge Analytica did work for Leave. EU, emails show
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Dolphin mom adopts whale calf—a first: "The orphaned calf even learned to act like a bottlenose dolphin, gaining acceptance into the community. Adoption is uncommon among wild mammals, with most occurring between related members of the same species."
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All news, US and international.

Car mechanic graduates from medical school at 47 to help address shortage of black doctors
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Jeffrey Epstein got court documents claiming he raped 15-year-old girl day before he was injured in jail cell
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Angry about no pay, Kentucky miners block train loaded with coal
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Science

Dolphin mom adopts whale calf, the first known case of a wild bottlenose mom adopting a calf of another species, as reported in a new study. The orphaned calf even learned to act like a bottlenose dolphin, gaining acceptance into the community.
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Earth just got blasted with the highest-energy photons ever recorded. The gamma rays, which clocked in at well over 100 tera-electronvolts (10 times what LHC can produce) seem to originate from a pulsar lurking in the heart of the Crab Nebula.
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Japanese scientists have developed an efficient method of successfully generating hair growth in nude mice using "bead-based hair follicle germ" (bbHFG). The new method can be scaled up and therefore shows great potential for clinical applications in human hair regenerative therapy.
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/Technology

Everything Cops Say About Amazon's Ring Is Scripted or Approved by Ring
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Twitter suspends a conspiracy-filled account after Trump retweets it
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It's 2019, and one third of businesses still have active Windows XP deployments
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Sadly, this is not the Onion.

Man facing car theft charges arrested after allegedly arriving at court in another stolen vehicle
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Arizona man learns mom's body sold to military, detonated in experiment
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Pro-Beijing leader posts photo of CIA agent, creates chaos. Twist: It is Matt Damon from Jason Bourne
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Ask Reddit...

What's the worst way to break up with someone?
Comments
What historical event can accurately be referred to as a “bruh moment”?
Comments
At what point did you look at yourself or your life and think “I really need to make a change”?
Comments

Sysadmin

Smaller companies making their IT department literally the everything department
Comments
Sophos Removal Script
Comments
Rant. Reading documentation longer than a twitter, seemgly, is a skill
Comments

Microsoft SQL Server

SSMS V18 beeps and closes out when trying to load
Comments
Free Online Training for August
Comments
I Need to take the 70-761 exam within the next 2 months but I don't know where to study from , any help would be appreciated.
Comments

PowerShell

Easy, fully automated, worry-free driver and firmware updates for Lenovo computers
Comments
Sophos Removal Script
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(RTPSUG Meeting April 7th) PowerShell Core: Who, What, Where, When & Why!
Comments

Functional 3D Printing

Custom drain cover to replace the broken slab leaning in front of the hole
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Made this PETG cup thing for these metal pegboard rings things to hold these long things
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Snap on hand grip for Game Boy Advance
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Data Is Beautiful

A Century of American UFO Sightings [OC]
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Tour de France Winner's Average Speed [OC]
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Human Height: across the world, gender differences, changes over time
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Today I Learned (TIL)

TIL Hawaii allows people to throw their beloved's ashes into their volcanos, as long as you pay a $25 permit and do it discreetly.
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TIL just before Live Aid, Freddie Mercury was told by his doctor not to do the show because of some vocal trouble. He of course, ignored it, and went on to deliver a 20 minutes show that, according to a BBC poll, is the greatest live performance of all time.
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TIL of the Oakland Buddha, a statue placed on a trash-ridden street corner by a non-Buddhist neighbor who was fed up with the trash. He thought the statue might 'shift the energy in the neighborhood.' It has since become a shrine and gathering place for Vietnamese residents.
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So many books, so little time

What Series Do You Think is Sorely Underated? For me it's Skulduggery Pleasant by Derek Landy
Comments
Circe is being made into a show!
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The legend of drizzt; Homeland, Exile, and Sojourn.
Comments

OldSchoolCool: History's cool kids, looking fantastic

Guns N’ Roses with Arnold Schwarzenegger, 1991
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Keanu Reeves and River Phoenix 1990
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Sophia Loren 1960s
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aviation

Overseeing HongKong from Air Canada
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One of the jet guys thought he would be funny.
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The mighty Antonov an-225 Mriya! ✈️
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Reddit Pics

9 years ago, my bio teacher tried to place me in the on-level science class, despite my perfect score on the EOCT. My 8th grade science teacher manually overrode that decision, and inspired a love of science. Last weekend, I presented my research at a national conference from Princeton University!
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Friend just found a set of keys in the park. They have tomorrow's date engraved on the chain, and GPS coordinates!
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Is #trashtag still a thing? My kids wanted to clean our walking path in Ontario, Canada.
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.gifs - funny, animated gifs for your viewing pleasure

This extremely hard test
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Happy 51st birthday to the best President EVER!
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Even cats are impressed by the Grand Canyon
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A subreddit for cute and cuddly pictures

Same boot, 3 years later
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Do not panic human. I am little, but I am mighty at avalanche rescue (training)!
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Out of nowhere this adorable baby jumped into my car. His owner finally showed up to fetch him and said his name is Opie.
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submitted by DangerDylan to DangerDylanTLDR [link] [comments]


2019.01.09 21:00 DangerDylan [Wednesday, 09. January]

World News

A Turkish journalist has been sentenced to more than a year in jail for her work on the Paradise Papers investigation into offshore tax havens, because it revealed details of the business activities of the country’s former prime minister and his sons.
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Cambridge Analytica Pleads Guilty in U.K. Data Trial
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Manafort accused by Mueller of sharing 2016 polling data with Russian linked to Moscow intelligence
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All news, US and international.

Joshua Tree national park announces closure after trees destroyed amid shutdown
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R. Kelly under criminal investigation as a result of ‘Surviving R. Kelly’ documentary
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Hunter boasted on dating app about poaching deer -- not realizing her potential suitor was a game warden
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Science

Girls and boys may learn differently in virtual reality (VR). A new study with 7th and 8th -grade students found that girls learned most when the VR-teacher was a young, female researcher named Marie, whereas the boys learned more while being instructed by a flying robot in the form of a drone.
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Cancer in America is way down: mortality rates declined each year from 1991 through 2016, averting 2.6 million deaths. Gains have been reaped mostly by the wealthy; the impact of limited access to treatment for the poorest Americans has increased inequality wealth-based inequality.
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Switching off anger with an electrode: Anger and aggression can be suppressed by targeting a specific region of the brain using weak direct current stimulation through the skull to modulate a neural circuit implicated in impulse control, finds a new fMRI study in the journal Cortex.
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Technology

Samsung Phone Users Perturbed to Find They Can't Delete Facebook
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Facebook is the new crapware
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Despite promises to stop, US cell carriers are still selling your real-time phone location data
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Sadly, this is not the Onion.

Robotic dildo barred from top tech showcase, prompting sexism claims
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Hunter boasted on dating app about poaching deer – not realizing her potential suitor was a game warden
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Death Row Inmate Sick of Execution Delays Hangs Self in Cell
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Ask Reddit...

What’s a story you’ve always wanted to share here but no one ever asked the right question?
Comments
What’s an oddly specific fear of yours?
Comments
What is an essential, not-so-obvious skill in life?
Comments

Sysadmin

Actual email from user this morning...
Comments
Datacenter "on fire"
Comments
Adobe Creative Cloud licensing is stupid.
Comments

Microsoft SQL Server

A Monumental Migration to SQL Server 2016 - Part 1
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A Monumental Migration to SQL Server 2016 - Part 2
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Will splitting a database into multiple data files help with CheckDB execution speed or performance?
Comments

PowerShell

Thanks Guys!
Comments
How to embed images into body of outlook email
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Get-ADUser Not Returning Specific Attributes
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Functional 3D Printing

Now I'm hooked! After the curved washer, I came up with and designed a book page holder that doubles as a bookmark.
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It’s not as cool as the things I see you guys sharing buts it’s transparent/ functional enough for me. PETG translucent spiralized with a 1mm nozzle.
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Cable hanger for my night stand
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Data Is Beautiful

Die Hard debate settled once and for all... up to 5x the search volume in December. [OC] from Instagram @chartrdaily which I run.
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Job seekers now spend 44% longer on the job search than during the 2008 recession [OC]
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Interactive visualization of related subreddits based on 39 million comments [OC]
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Today I Learned (TIL)

TIL that Mcdonald’s stopped using beef tallow in their French fries after a wealthy heart attack survivor spent $3 million dollars on full page newspaper ads calling out the chain for their unhealthy menu.
Comments Link
TIL in 1946, a man claiming to be a detective gave a pedestrian a camera and asked her to take a picture of a suspect. The "detective" turned out to be a gangster, the "suspect" turned out to be his ex-wife, and the "camera" turned out to be a concealed shotgun firing via the shutter button.
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TIL a photographer took pictures of a street mime in Central Park in 1974..and 35 years later discovered it was Robin Williams before he was famous
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So many books, so little time

The Largest J.R.R. Tolkien Exhibit in Generations Is Coming to the U.S.: Original Drawings, Manuscripts, Maps & More
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Just finished The Road by Cormac McCarthy
Comments
Finished "The Long Walk" by Stephen King
Comments

OldSchoolCool: History's cool kids, looking fantastic

Steve Buscemi's elementary school picture (1960s)
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Me and my future wife back in 1985 doing our best to look like characters in a John Hughes film.
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My Parents Sitting on a Bench, 1987
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aviation

F-14 over Iraq
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The XP-82 Twin Mustang
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In 2018, the world’s largest jet engine—the GE9X—took flight. In the 100,000 pound thrust class, the engine is as wide as the entire body of a Boeing 737. The first GE9X engine endured an accumulated 335 hours and 375 cycles of tests and is currently in its 2nd phase of testing.
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Reddit Pics

Sakura in Japan.
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Golden bridge in Vietnam
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Rakotzbrücke, Germany
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.gifs - funny, animated gifs for your viewing pleasure

Nobody noticed, just act normal
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Someone was playing Mario Kart on the Kansas City Royals video board
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One of my worst "irrational" fears realized
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A subreddit for cute and cuddly pictures

Moose looks like he belongs on a wanted poster
Comments Link
Tappy taps!
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Found this hat at petsmart and had to buy it for her 😂
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submitted by DangerDylan to DangerDylanTLDR [link] [comments]


2018.10.16 22:11 fantastic_comment The journey of leaving Facebookistan

This is a manual on how to leave Facebookistan (Facebook, Instragram, WhatsApp). It is fundamental that you read first the step by step guide to leave Facebook. This is an extend version that explains the Stage 2 - "Bridge" Mode in more detail.
In the following paragraphs is assumed that you already understand all the problems about Facebook Inc and why people are still there. If you don't understand some concepts like Network Effects, ad tech concepts such as pixel tracking, cookie syncing, device/browser fingerprint, real time bidding, hashing, data brokers and how they are related with Facebook please read some of these papers/reports. It is also recommended to watch some of these documentaries and talks.
You have to consider that the large majority of your audience has insufficient computer skills (digital illiteracy), more than 95% of the world population like mention in this study. Most CS grads also don't understand the problem. You can realize that by just looking how many are on Facebookistan. To really understand all the problems of Facebook, you need to be above that level. Not only it is required to have knowledge in computer science, but also in economics, psychology and ethics. This is why it is very important to educate yourself to properly follow this manual.
This process takes 30 days without taking in account the period of self learning. During those 30 days, you will use Facebookistan against itself with just one purpose - decrease the information asymmetry between you and your social graph about the problems of Facebookistan. You will transfer the information and knowledge you have been acquire during the period of self learning. Note that the large majority of people, around 70%, rely only on Facebook for entertainment mixed with a low percentage of news articles - Filter Bubble. In countries with Free Basics/internet.org, Facebookistan is the internet. So it is not surprise they never hear about the scandals about Facebook. Some of them only read the news content present inside Facebookistan, and don't get the "full picture" of the problem. Dopamine effects tells them to scroll down to check the next article, waiting for an update that rewards them - acting like a “slot machine for the brain”.
Some of those who leave Facebookistan return because they not follow this important step. That was the reason to Facebook increase the deletion grace period from 14 days to 30 days. Remember that the main power of Facebookistan relies on Network Effects - Why Facebook Keeps Beating Every Rival: It’s the Network, of Course. The main idea is to give the following message: you are leaving Facebookistan not just because Facebook Inc hurts you but also hurts them, you are doing it to protect them, like a true friend (must read webpage about friendship in The Nicomachean Ethics). You will create multiple empathic interactions - pathos - with your social graph. In the end, when the information asymmetry is close to zero, if he/she doesn't recognize the issue, it means that he/she is not your friend, doesn't respect you. Friendship requires mutual recognition and moral values. If this happens you should think and act like a stoic, you have no power to change their atitudes so it is better to leave them. Facebookistan manipulates society to think that it is better and necessary today to stay on Facebookistan to connect with friends, the fear of missing out (FoMO). Studies shows exactly the opposite, being off Facebookistan, makes you happier, less stressed, less lonely/more sociable, you start to build strong relationships and you become more focus and productive.
You will use (for the first time) Facebookistan to send your messages, if you still are on Instagram or WhatsApp, post the same message on those services via stories. Facebookistan is a huge marketplace to sell user attention. Your posts will compete against thousands of others from people and companies that want to reach your social graph. Facebook prioritize the ones that pays and then the ones that the algorithm thinks will convert in engagement inside the platform via shares, likes, reactions for each individual user. The algorithm prioritize content uploaded directly to Facebookistan: pictures, short videos and short messages. Remember that the majority of Facebookistan useds check the feed via mobile phones in short intervals. This is why each message should be easy to digest, less than 3 seconds to read/watch. Because of these aspects, your posts will probably have almost no user engagement: comments, likes,... and it is perfectly fine. Each of your posts you will be seen by at most by 5 elements of your social graph and if you are lucky, one will read the entire post. Some of them will be censor, like this one. If this happens, use it in your advantage, take a screenshot and uploaded to Facebookistan.
If you post daily, it means during this period you will reach almost the entire social graph. Don't forget to choose your audience, every post should be only seen by your social graph. Select the option to share only with friends. Note that majority of humans are capable of maintaining 150 stable social relationships - Dunbar's number. Some can go up to 250-300. You can post twice a day to be sure that you reach your entire social graph.
Each day should be spent on a specific problem of Facebookistan. For example, on first day, you can discuss how Facebook is stealing money from people that create good educational videos. Share the video from Kurzgesagt (In a Nutshell) - How Facebook is Stealing Billions of Views and one of the articles mentioned in the description hours later. Write a small text explaining the problem, or if you are lazy copy/paste the video description.
On the second day, you can write about censorship, post the video produced by Belgium Museum - Social media doesn't want you to see Rubens' paintings and hours later write a small post about Facebook censors Norway Prime Minister Erna Solberg and the largest Norway’s newspaper about the "Napalm Girl", read the following article.
On the next day, you write a post about Facebook doing large scale psychological experiments, like the news feed experiment to control emotions involving 689,000 users in which friends' postings were moved to influence moods. Another one more recent reveals that Facebook shares psychological insights on young people with advertisers.
Year over year the number of problems of Facebookistan increases. Why can not Mark Zuckerberg fix Facebookistan? The answer is simple, the problem of Facebookistan is Facebookistan itself - the business model. As a corporation, shareholders demand more profits from their product - selling user attention. This requires more personal data and better targeting technologies. Facebookistan build more features on top of existing services to scale quickly like Facebook Dating and Portal video chat and it buys more services such as Instagram, WhatsApp and Onavo to gather more personal data from each used (or not). Free basics/internet.org is a clearly example to Facebookistan to reach the maximum number of people in developing countries - digital colonialism. Facebookistan uses the same playbook as the Tobacco companies - influence young people as soon as possible. Facebook Messenger Kids is a product to addict kids for future profits. Secondly, Facebookistan invests in machine learning technologies, labs to understand and extract more behavior data, in data centers, submarine cables around the world and network hardware to control and speed up the data harvesting. The video Monologue of the Algorithm: how Facebook turns users data into its profit summarizes this entire paragraph perfectly. The video description has more excellent resources.
Selling user attention has massive negative consequences for everyone: privacy violations and "data leaks" like the Cambridge Analytica, political lobbying against privacy regulations, avoiding corporate taxes, helping dictatorial regimes with propaganda, the free basics/internet.org anti net neutrality program, instant articles that hurts journalism, spreading of conspiracy theories and fringe discourse, ... You can find more on the Wikipedia article Criticism of Facebook. You have to enumerate and explain this important problem to your social graph - Facebookistan can't be fixed. Facebookistan is a structural threat to free society and democracy. John Lanchester wrote probably the best critic about the Facebookistan, which is a review of 3 excellent books and cites a number of studies to support his point. I recommend you to read that article. One recent book Anti-Social Media: How Facebook Disconnects Us and Undermines Democracy discuss the problem in more detail.
Another aspect that you should explain multiple times is that Instagram and WhatsApp are Facebook Inc services that share personal data between them. Staying on WhatsApp or Instagram is the same as being on Facebook. The vast majority of people, around 60% in USA, don’t know that Facebook owns Instagram and WhatsApp (around 50% in US). It is fundamental to explain the problems of Instagram and WhatsApp and why you are leaving both.
It can happen that someone reply to your posts with partial or wrong information - "bullsh*t!", a sympton of information asymmetry. The more knwoledge you have, the easier it is to rebut arguments based on the bullsh*t asymmetry principle. Be kind and argue with them what are the wrong assumptions. This webpage shows counterarguments from those who (still) are on Facebook/Instagram/WhatsApp.
If you want some fun, post some comics that criticizes Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg and Sheryl Sandberg. The Joy of Tech has good ones. Last Week Tonight produce in July a video ad in response to the one produced by Facebook about the Cambridge Analytica scandal.
During this period, Facebookistan will be in the news because of another scandal. Take those opportunities to post and explain in further detail the problem. Check the facebook section of the major newspapers/magazines, for english native speakers, BBC, The Guardian, TechCrunch, Wired, more sources here.
After 30 days your timeline will be similar to Facebook: a timeline of abuse by Privacy International. It is time for the grand finale. You post the the last message/letter saying that you will leave Facebookistan because it is the natural action/behavior from the arguments you wrote in the last month - phronesis. Facebook Inc don't respect us, the only solution is to leave those services. Your letter should be similar to Get your loved ones off Facebook (must read). This letter should contain some articles you post during the last 30 days. One suggestion to increase more views and user engagement is to change your profile and cover photo "to a toilet" hours before posting the final letter. The feed algorithm prioritize those kind of changes and future post from you. If some one ask you why you change the pictures, just link to the Last Week Tonight episode about Facebook.
It is important to suggest alternatives during this period - "the bridge". With the knowledge you have now, you know that the only solution relies on federated services - Think Like the Internet, or How to Fight Facebook, and Win. The key idea here is consensus - adopt just one solution that doesn't compromise the social graph of your close ones. People's attention is finite, no human can split/spent their attention between 5 or more different chat services - the power of network effects.
Now that you inform and reach a consensus with your social graph, you should remove your presence on Facebookistan. Again, follow the step by step guide to leave Facebook to avoid Facebookistan tracking you and grabbing personal data from people you love.
Fell free to blog, copy/adapt this text and share it on the open web. The markdown of this manual is available for free here
submitted by fantastic_comment to nosurf [link] [comments]


2018.10.11 13:32 fantastic_comment The journey of leaving Facebookistan

This is a manual on how to leave Facebookistan (Facebook, Instragram, WhatsApp). It is fundamental that you read first the step by step guide to leave Facebook. This is an extend version that explains the Stage 2 - "Bridge" Mode in more detail.
In the following paragraphs is assumed that you already understand all the problems about Facebook Inc and why people are still there. If you don't understand some concepts like Network Effects, ad tech concepts such as pixel tracking, cookie syncing, device/browser fingerprint, real time bidding, hashing, data brokers and how they are related with Facebook please read some of these papers/reports. It is also recommended to watch some of these documentaries and talks.
You have to consider that the large majority of your audience has insufficient computer skills (digital illiteracy), more than 95% of the world population like mention in this study. Most CS grads also don't understand the problem. You can realize that by just looking how many are on Facebookistan. To really understand all the problems of Facebook, you need to be above that level. Not only it is required to have knowledge in computer science, but also in economics, psychology and ethics. This is why it is very important to educate yourself to properly follow this manual.
This process takes 30 days without taking in account the period of self learning. During those 30 days, you will use Facebookistan against itself with just one purpose - decrease the information asymmetry between you and your social graph about the problems of Facebookistan. You will transfer the information and knowledge you have been acquire during the period of self learning. Note that the large majority of people, around 70%, rely only on Facebook for entertainment mixed with a low percentage of news articles - Filter Bubble. In countries with Free Basics/internet.org, Facebookistan is the internet. So it is not surprise they never hear about the scandals about Facebook. Some of them only read the news content present inside Facebookistan, and don't get the "full picture" of the problem. Dopamine effects tells them to scroll down to check the next article, waiting for an update that rewards them - acting like a “slot machine for the brain”.
Some of those who leave Facebookistan return because they not follow this important step. That was the reason to Facebook increase the deletion grace period from 14 days to 30 days. Remember that the main power of Facebookistan relies on Network Effects - Why Facebook Keeps Beating Every Rival: It’s the Network, of Course. The main idea is to give the following message: you are leaving Facebookistan not just because Facebook Inc hurts you but also hurts them, you are doing it to protect them, like a true friend (must read webpage about friendship in The Nicomachean Ethics). You will create multiple empathic interactions - pathos - with your social graph. In the end, when the information asymmetry is close to zero, if he/she doesn't recognize the issue, it means that he/she is not your friend, doesn't respect you. Friendship requires mutual recognition and moral values. If this happens you should think and act like a stoic, you have no power to change their atitudes so it is better to leave them. Facebookistan manipulates society to think that it is better and necessary today to stay on Facebookistan to connect with friends, the fear of missing out (FoMO). Studies shows exactly the opposite, being off Facebookistan, makes you happier, less stressed, less lonely/more sociable, you start to build strong relationships and you become more focus and productive.
You will use (for the first time) Facebookistan to send your messages, if you still are on Instagram or WhatsApp, post the same message on those services via stories. Facebookistan is a huge marketplace to sell user attention. Your posts will compete against thousands of others from people and companies that want to reach your social graph. Facebook prioritize the ones that pays and then the ones that the algorithm thinks will convert in engagement inside the platform via shares, likes, reactions for each individual user. The algorithm prioritize content uploaded directly to Facebookistan: pictures, short videos and short messages. Remember that the majority of Facebookistan useds check the feed via mobile phones in short intervals. This is why each message should be easy to digest, less than 3 seconds to read/watch. Because of these aspects, your posts will probably have almost no user engagement: comments, likes,... and it is perfectly fine. Each of your posts you will be seen by at most by 5 elements of your social graph and if you are lucky, one will read the entire post. Some of them will be censor, like this one. If this happens, use it in your advantage, take a screenshot and uploaded to Facebookistan. Seee this excellent post describing the process - 14 reasons why #DeleteFacebook
If you post daily, it means during this period you will reach almost the entire social graph. Don't forget to choose your audience, every post should be only seen by your social graph. Select the option to share only with friends. Note that majority of humans are capable of maintaining 150 stable social relationships - Dunbar's number. Some can go up to 250-300. You can post twice a day to be sure that you reach your entire social graph.
Each day should be spent on a specific problem of Facebookistan. For example, on first day, you can discuss how Facebook is stealing money from people that create good educational videos. Share the video from Kurzgesagt (In a Nutshell) - How Facebook is Stealing Billions of Views and one of the articles mentioned in the description hours later. Write a small text explaining the problem, or if you are lazy copy/paste the video description.
On the second day, you can write about censorship, post the video produced by Belgium Museum - Social media doesn't want you to see Rubens' paintings and hours later write a small post about Facebook censors Norway Prime Minister Erna Solberg and the largest Norway’s newspaper about the "Napalm Girl", read the following article.
On the next day, you write a post about Facebook doing large scale psychological experiments, like the news feed experiment to control emotions involving 689,000 users in which friends' postings were moved to influence moods. Another one more recent reveals that Facebook shares psychological insights on young people with advertisers.
Year over year the number of problems of Facebookistan increases. Why can not Mark Zuckerberg fix Facebookistan? The answer is simple, the problem of Facebookistan is Facebookistan itself - the business model. As a corporation, shareholders demand more profits from their product - selling user attention. This requires more personal data and better targeting technologies. Facebookistan build more features on top of existing services to scale quickly like Facebook Dating and Portal video chat and it buys more services such as Instagram, WhatsApp and Onavo to gather more personal data from each used (or not). Free basics/internet.org is a clearly example to Facebookistan to reach the maximum number of people in developing countries - digital colonialism. Facebookistan uses the same playbook as the Tobacco companies - influence young people as soon as possible. Facebook Messenger Kids is a product to addict kids for future profits. Secondly, Facebookistan invests in machine learning technologies, labs to understand and extract more behavior data, in data centers, submarine cables around the world and network hardware to control and speed up the data harvesting. The video Monologue of the Algorithm: how Facebook turns users data into its profit summarizes this entire paragraph perfectly. The video description has more excellent resources.
Selling user attention has massive negative consequences for everyone: privacy violations and "data leaks" like the Cambridge Analytica, political lobbying against privacy regulations, avoiding corporate taxes, helping dictatorial regimes with propaganda, the free basics/internet.org anti net neutrality program, instant articles that hurts journalism, spreading of conspiracy theories and fringe discourse, ... You can find more on the Wikipedia article Criticism of Facebook. You have to enumerate and explain this important problem to your social graph - Facebookistan can't be fixed. Facebookistan is a structural threat to free society and democracy. John Lanchester wrote probably the best critic about the Facebookistan, which is a review of 3 excellent books and cites a number of studies to support his point. I recommend you to read that article. One recent book Anti-Social Media: How Facebook Disconnects Us and Undermines Democracy discuss the problem in more detail.
Another aspect that you should explain multiple times is that Instagram and WhatsApp are Facebook Inc services that share personal data between them. Staying on WhatsApp or Instagram is the same as being on Facebook. The vast majority of people, around 60% in USA, don’t know that Facebook owns Instagram and WhatsApp (around 50% in US). It is fundamental to explain the problems of Instagram and WhatsApp and why you are leaving both.
It can happen that someone reply to your posts with partial or wrong information - "bullsh*t!", a sympton of information asymmetry. The more knwoledge you have, the easier it is to rebut arguments based on the bullsh*t asymmetry principle. Be kind and argue with them what are the wrong assumptions. This webpage shows counterarguments from those who (still) are on Facebook/Instagram/WhatsApp.
If you want some fun, post some comics that criticizes Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg and Sheryl Sandberg. The Joy of Tech has good ones. Last Week Tonight produce in July a video ad in response to the one produced by Facebook about the Cambridge Analytica scandal.
During this period, Facebookistan will be in the news because of another scandal. Take those opportunities to post and explain in further detail the problem. Check the facebook section of the major newspapers/magazines, for english native speakers, BBC, The Guardian, TechCrunch, Wired, more sources here.
After 30 days your timeline will be similar to Facebook: a timeline of abuse by Privacy International. It is time for the grand finale. You post the the last message/letter saying that you will leave Facebookistan because it is the natural action/behavior from the arguments you wrote in the last month - phronesis. Facebook Inc don't respect us, the only solution is to leave those services. Your letter should be similar to Get your loved ones off Facebook (must read). This letter should contain some articles you post during the last 30 days. One suggestion to increase more views and user engagement is to change your profile and cover photo "to a toilet" hours before posting the final letter. The feed algorithm prioritize those kind of changes and future post from you. If some one ask you why you change the pictures, just link to the Last Week Tonight episode about Facebook.
It is important to suggest alternatives during this period - "the bridge". With the knowledge you have now, you know that the only solution relies on federated services - Think Like the Internet, or How to Fight Facebook, and Win. The key idea here is consensus - adopt just one solution that doesn't compromise the social graph of your close ones. People's attention is finite, no human can split/spent their attention between 5 or more different chat services - the power of network effects.
Now that you inform and reach a consensus with your social graph, you should remove your presence on Facebookistan. Again, follow the step by step guide to leave Facebook to avoid Facebookistan tracking you and grabbing personal data from people you love.
Fell free to blog, copy/adapt this text and share it on the open web. The markdown of this manual is available for free here
submitted by fantastic_comment to AntiFacebook [link] [comments]


2018.10.04 21:00 DangerDylan [Thursday, 04. October]

World News

Osaka has ended its 60-year “sister city” relationship with San Francisco to protest against the presence in the US city of a statue symbolising Japan’s wartime use of sex slaves.
Link Comments
Artificial sweeteners are toxic to digestive gut bacteria: study
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Dutch security services expelled four Russians in April over a plot targeting the global chemical weapons watchdog, officials said.
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All news, US and international.

Amazon's hourly workers lose monthly bonuses and stock awards as minimum wage increases
Link Comments
China Used a Tiny Chip in a Hack That Infiltrated Amazon and Apple
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Former Georgia Cop Who Lied About Black Man Shooting Her Sentenced to 15 Years in Prison
Link Comments

Science

A 15 minute jog is better for the mind than 15 minutes of calm relaxation, as a brief jog sharpens the mind, boosting attentional control and perceptual speed, in part through a subjective sense of having more energy (in contrast to the relaxation group who felt less energetic), suggests new study.
Link Comments
It pays to be pessimistic, suggests new research into entrepreneurs. A new study suggests that optimistic thinking is leading people to set up businesses that are doomed to fail, finding that business owners with above average optimism earned some 30% less than those with below average optimism.
Link Comments
Researchers find that cannabis affected cognitive health more than alcohol and that those negative effects endured even after teens stopped using cannabis.
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Technology

'Siri, I'm getting pulled over': a new shortcut for iPhones can automatically record the police
Link Comments
Amazon eliminates monthly bonuses and stock grants after minimum wage increase
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Chinese spy chips are found in hardware used by Apple, Amazon, Bloomberg says; Apple, AWS say no way
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Sadly, this is not the Onion.

Female Nobel prize winner deemed not important enough for Wikipedia entry
Link Comments
American Airlines CEO: More Crowded Planes are 'Much More Comfortable
Link Comments
Feral cats appear to be pathetic at controlling New York City’s rats
Link Comments

Ask Reddit...

What video game did you play and love but can remember almost nothing about?
Comments
(NSFW) Redditors who live in small secluded towns, what's a really fucked up/dark/NSFW thing that happened in your town that everybody knows about?
Comments
You get trapped in a book and have to spend the rest of your life in that world. What's your preferred book?
Comments

Sysadmin

From Bloomberg: How China Used a Tiny Chip to Infiltrate Amazon and Apple
Comments
Thank you /Sysadmin
Comments
Just another 1809 Post. Disk Cleanup tool now has the option to clear out your downloads folder.
Comments

Microsoft SQL Server

I have no idea what I'm doing.
Comments
Current date for datetime object in trace?
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Check for other server tasks interfering with SQL Server
Comments

PowerShell

Half off LearnPowerShell Scripting in a Month of Lunches
Comments
Breaking change with powershell jobs and the start command in Windows 1809
Comments
Guide to proper development practices
Comments

Functional 3D Printing

My last iPhone had an iRing, and I put the hooks everywhere - especially our cars. But, I’m not using the ring on my new phone, and this print allows me to still use the hooks! (I also like how it looks like a stick figure...)
Link Comments
Induction charger for my Jeep. PETG & PLA+
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Designed and printed an action cam mount for my bike!
Link Comments

Data Is Beautiful

[OC] The top 50 NSFW subreddits since the beginning of this year by number of submissions
Link Comments
Tobacco litter picked up on Polk Street, SF, over the course of a month [OC]
Link Comments
[OC] Women who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife when she burns the food (% of women by country)
Link Comments

Today I Learned (TIL)

TIL 1-800-COLLECT was so popular in the 90s that AT&T launched a competing service, 1-800-Operator. However AT&T later discovered many people misspell Operator with 'er' instead of 'or' at the end, and that unfortunately, 1-800-COLLECT owned the misspelled number and had been taking their customers.
Link Comments
TIL a small town in southern Kyoto, Japan has a yearly festival and monument next to a shrine dedicated to Thomas Edison. He used the bamboo from the town Yawata for his filament in the lightbulbs which increased the use time from 40 hours to 1,000
Link Comments
TIL Ernest Thompson Seton, one of the founding pioneers of the Boy Scouts of America, was presented with an invoice for all the expenses connected with his childhood, by his father, including the fee charged by the doctor who delivered him. He paid the bill, but never spoke to his father again.
Link Comments

So many books, so little time

Cambridge University Library's 17-storey tower holds one million banished books that were considered 'not academic enough' and is now a literary time capsule and treasure trove for researchers.
Link Comments
Barnes & Noble hangs up "for sale" sign
Link Comments
A Louisiana library says a book borrowed 84 years ago has been returned by the son of the woman who checked it out as an 11-year-old girl
Link Comments

OldSchoolCool: History's cool kids, looking fantastic

28-year-old Jenny Joseph posing for Columbia Pictures Logo, 1992
Link Comments
Los Angeles - 1950s
Link Comments
Grandma and grandpa at prom (1953)
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aviation

Doc and Fifi, the world’s only airworthy B-29 Superfortresses flying formation together.
Link Comments
"Flying Gliders" from my childchood
Link Comments
Recorded this a month ago and wanted to share it with this sub
Link Comments

Reddit Pics

My brother decided to take this lovely photo of me, 2 months pregnant, crying and eating Ben and Jerry’s.
Link Comments
Saw a pregnant squirrel for the first time today. I’m not sure what I expected but this exceeds all of it.
Link Comments
Driveway I just finished working on. I do decorative concrete work for a living. 3655sq ft total. Almost a 1/4 mile long in length.
Link Comments

.gifs - funny, animated gifs for your viewing pleasure

Hey Mr monk, i show you how its done.
Link Comments
Now you see me
Link Comments
Happy birthday grandma!
Link Comments

A subreddit for cute and cuddly pictures

I think someone spilled a bag of ducks near aisle 6
Link Comments
"Beware of the dog"
Link Comments
My dad’s a plumber. Today he was dealing with some especially difficult clients...
Link Comments
submitted by DangerDylan to DangerDylanTLDR [link] [comments]


2018.09.12 08:25 rEuropeanUnion State of the European Union 2018

State of the European Union 2018

Reddit Live Thread HERE (NOW OVER)

Location: Strasbourg, France.
TL;DR: The State of the European Union speech will be on Wednesday, 12 September, from 09:00 CEST to 10:00 CEST. It will be presented by Jean-Claude Juncker, the President of the European Commission. The parliamentary debate will be held after the speech.
Official live video feeds
Other live coverage
Live Blogs
Hashtags on social media
#SOTEU, #FutureOfEurope
Articles

Programme

The State of the European Union is an annual speech delivered each September by the President of the European Commission before the Members of the European Parliament (MEPs).
At 9:00 Brussels time, President Jean-Claude Juncker, will deliver his speech before a plenary session of the European Parliament. The speech reviews the successes and failures of the Union, declares its general political direction, and sets out the legislative agenda of the European Commission for the year.
Once the hour-long speech has concluded, the European Parliament then holds an open debate, going over the State of the European Union speech, and the political situation throughout the European Union.

Summary of Upcoming Commission Proposals:

  • Improving the detection and removal of terrorist content online within one hour by companies like Google, or they will face fines
  • New rules on stopping data misuse by EU political groupings (EPP, ALDE etc.)
  • Scrapping the biannual clock change in the European Union
  • Upgrading the mandate and resources of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency to a “genuine border police” with 10,000 officials by 2020
  • Upgrading the European Asylum Support Office (future EU Asylum Agency)
  • A new policy on returning migrants, including common conditions and timelines for returns
  • Africa package (creating more paths for legal migration, tackling root causes of migration, trade agreement with Africa etc.)
  • Strengthening the European Banking Authority to tackle money laundering and terrorist financing through more resources and greater enforcement powers
  • Creating a European Cybersecurity Research and Competence Centre
  • Commission initiative to strengthen the enforcement of the rule of law in the European Union
  • Commission communication on the possible extension of the tasks of the European Public Prosecutor’s Office to include the fight against cross-border terrorism
  • Commission communications on enhancing the use of qualified majority voting in common foreign and security policy and the internal market
  • Single Market implementation and enforcement report
  • Commission communication on the future of EU Energy and Climate policy, including the future of the Euratom Treaty
  • Long-term EU strategy for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
  • "Towards a Sustainable Europe by 2030, on the follow-up to the UN Sustainable Development Goals, including on the Paris Agreement on Climate Change" reflection paper

The President of the European Commission

Jean-Claude Juncker
Term: 1 November 2014 - 31 October 2019
Jean-Claude Juncker started as a deputy in Luxembourg in 1984. Soon after, he started taking on various governmental roles. He because Luxembourg’s minister of finances in 1989, and subsequently became Prime Minister of Luxembourg, holding the office between 1995 and 2013.
Juncker held the Eurogroup presidency from 2005 to 2013, serving 3 terms. He was then chosen as the European People’s Party lead candidate for the 2014 European Parliament elections. He was proposed by the European Council afterwards, and the European Parliament voted in favour of him being President. He has previously announced he will not stand for a second term as President, meaning his tenure will end on the 31st October 2019.

Current European political topics

European Parliament Elections

Between May 23rd to the 26th 2019, elections to the European Parliament will be held. Following Brexit, the amount of MEPs will be reduced to 705, with some of the UK’s MEPs being redistributed to other member states and some being held in reserve for any potential enlargements of the EU.
The European Parliament has confirmed that it will follow the “Spitzenkandidaten” process once more. The European political parties will endorse ‘lead candidates’ ahead of the vote which will compete to be President of the European Commission. The European Council officially proposes a candidate for Commission President, ‘taking into account’ the results of the Parliament elections. However, the European Parliament has already stated it will reject any candidate who was not designated as a ‘lead candidate’ ahead of time.
Candidates:
Candidate Date Announced European Political Party
Maroš Šefčovič 4th June 2018 Party of European Socialists
Ska Keller 9th July 2018 European Greens
Manfred Weber 5th September 2018 European People's Party
Petra de Sutter 12th September 2018 European Greens
The European Commission is set to propose rules that could result in the political parties at the EU level (European People’s Party, Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe etc.) being fined up to 5% of their annual budget if they misuse personal data in a similar way to how Cambridge Analytica operated, trying to influence elections with this data.
As part of a broader package to counter online voter manipulation and personal data misuse for political purposes, the European Commission will recommend that governments should crack down on “micro-targeting”, the practice of sending personalised political messages to users without their consent. It will also be recommended that member states introduce stricter transparency requirements on online political advertising.
Commissioner for Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality Vera Jourova has said that voters should be able to “always understand when something is an online campaign, who runs the campaign, who pays for it and what they want to achieve.” However, she said that the EU wouldn’t go as far as regulating the online activity of any political grouping, stating that the internet is a “zone for free expression.”
Overview of the European Parliament elections, 2019

Eurozone

In the 2017 SOTEU speech, Juncker proposed an EU minister of finance, who would be a Vice-President of the Commission and also President of the Eurogroup, the informal meeting of Eurozone finance ministers. By extension, they would also be Chair of the board of the European Monetary Fund. This minister could oversee the use of EU budgetary instruments and represent the euro area at a global level.
In December 2017, the Commission proposed to integrate the European Stability Mechanism (to become the European Monetary Fund) and the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance into EU law. The possibility of introducing an EU finance minister who would be a Vice President of the Commission as well as chair of the Eurogroup was also floated. They could oversee the budgetary instruments of the EU and represent the Euro area at a global level.
The Meseberg Declaration agreed between France and Germany calls for establishing a eurozone budget for competitiveness, convergence and stablisation within the framework of the EU. Resources would come from national contributions, allocation of tax revenue and European resources. However, 12 EU member states including Austria, Finland and the Netherlands questioned the need for any “fiscal capacity”, saying that there is “wide divergence” on the need for any budget, or at least what form it may take.
More recently, Germany’s deputy finance minister Jörg Kukies has stated that talks on a Eurozone budget should not distract from talks on the Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF), the EU’s multi-annual budget. The “most pressing issue” was to figure out how the EU budget can contribute to stabilization, competitiveness and convergence. “This is a more relevant question than carving out a separate budget for the Eurozone”.
Under the Commission’s MFF Proposals, the European Commission proposed a €30 billion European Investment Stabilisation Function, which would provide back-to-back loans to a member state experiencing financial difficulties, provided they adhered to relevant EU budgetary rules beforehand.
A Convergence Facility for Member States actively trying to join the euro will be introduced, assisting member states with the reforms needed to do so. Bulgaria is actively attempting to join the euro, and will have to join the system of EU banking supervision (banking union) as well as the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM II) for 2 years before it can join the euro area.
A Reform Support Programme of €25 billion has also been proposed, which would provide financial incentives and also provide technical assistance for EU member states to carry out structural reforms. This programme is voluntary, and the money could be claimed back if the reforms are reversed.
In June 2018, EU leaders agreed in principle on making the European Stability Mechanism the backstop to the Single Resolution Fund. The Fund is used to wind down/resolve banks that have been declared failing or likely to fail by the European Central Bank, and shall reach the target level of at least 1% of the amount of covered deposits of all credit institutions within the Banking Union by 2024. The backstop should effectively double its capacity, providing around €55 billion of support.
Eurozone countries will work towards an agreement in December 2018 to change how the ESM functions, including creating the backstop to the Single Resolution Fund and how the ESM is governed. In future it could be integrated into EU law following the Commission’s proposal.
Eurozone finance ministers also agreed to work towards adopting a roadmap on starting political discussions on a European Deposit Insurance Scheme in December 2018. This Scheme would guarantee deposits of up to €100,000. When a bank is placed into insolvency or in resolution and it is necessary to pay out deposits, the national schemes and the European Deposit Insurance Scheme could intervene.
Factsheets on Deepening Europe’s Economic and Monetary Union

Migration

In June 2018, the European Council adopted conclusions on migration, calling on, among other things, for vessels operating in the Mediterranean to respect international law and not impede the work of the Libyan Coast Guard. Disembarkation platforms in third countries from which some asylum seekers could be relocated and voluntary controlled centres in EU member states were an option agreed to, though no country has currently agreed to host either. There was also agreement on the need to have dedicated funds to manage external migration in the next MFF.
The aim of ‘controlled centres’ inside the EU would be to improve the process of distinguishing between those individuals who qualify for refugee status, and those who don’t. The centres would be managed by a Member State with support from EU agencies. The Commission has offered to assist any member state granting access to their ports for disembarkation through a disembarkation team, which could include around 500 people from Frontex, Europol and the European Asylum Support Office. The EU budget could also cover all infrastructure and operational costs. The initial registration and asylum screening process could be as short as 72 hours.
For those Member States which agree to process a share of those disembarked from sea, the Commision is offering to allocate €6,000 per person relocated and will cover the transfer costs of €500 per person given to the country of disembarkation.
The European Commission intends to propose an upgrade to the European Border and Coastguard Agency (Frontex) to have 10,000 officiers by 2020, though most of them could be from a pool of national border guards to start with, with 50% of staff being permanent by 2027. It will have the power to bear arms, and would aim to intercept new arrivals, stop unauthorised travel between EU states and accelerate the return of rejected asylum seekers to their countries of origin, even without the consent of the member state. The agency would also gain more powers to exchange information with third countries. A senior EU official has been quoted as saying “we want to federalise external border protection as much as possible and help out countries on the front line.” However, certain EU member states such as Malta are reluctant about further competence shifts to Frontex.
The Italian government has recently been rejecting NGO vessels rescuing migrants in the Mediterranean from docking in Italy, though other member states such as Malta and France have done this as well. Italy has also rejected permission for Italian navy ships to dock in Italy to disembark rescued migrants, and threatened to torpedo Operation Sophia (the EU’s naval mission in the Mediterranean to combat people smuggling) if the rules weren’t changed to stop the automatic disembarkation of rescued migrants in Italy. The possibility of simply rejecting Sophia vessels from docking in Italian ports was also floated.
On 24th August, the Italian government threatened to withhold its EU budget contribution if other EU countries didn’t agree to taking migrants from the Italian Coast Guard ship Diciotti, currently stranded in an Italian port. The European Commission called a meeting of 12 EU member states, but no agreement was found at that meeting.
Only Ireland and Albania agreed to take in some of the migrants, and Italy also threatened to veto the EU’s next multi-year budget, the Multiannual Financial Framework if the EU didn’t start to share in the intake of migrants. The MFF is adopted by unanimous approval among member states following the approval of the European Parliament.
Commissioner for Budget and Human Resources Günther Oettinger pointed out that Italy refusing to pay its budgetary contribution would be the first time that event happened in the history of the European Union, and Italy would potentially face both late interest payments and sanctions.
The reform of the Common European Asylum System, comprising 7 proposals, may be touched upon:
Proposal Description Stage of legislative process
Dublin Regulation Determines which member state is responsible for processing an application for international protection EP adopted position, Council yet to adopt a position
Eurodac Regulation Strengthen the Eurodac fingerprint database by collecting more data such as facial images to facilitate returns and help tackle irregular migration Political agreement
EU Asylum Agency Upgrading the European Asylum Support Office to a full EU Asylum Agency, providing guidance and assistance for assessments of asylum applications Agreement, but won’t be adopted until other proposals finalised
Asylum Procedure Regulation Aims to achieve a fully harmonised EU procedure for granting and withdrawing international protection EP adopted position, Council yet to adopt a position
Qualification Regulation Harmonised protection standards and rights for asylum seekers, ensuring asylum seekers are treated in the same way in all member states Negotiations between EP and Council
Reception Conditions Directive Harmonised EU reception standards for asylum seekers Negotiations between EP and Council
EU Resettlement Framework Common framework for EU member states resettling recognised refugees from outside EU territory Negotiations between EP and Council
There will be a report on progress during the October 2018 European Council.
The latest proposals from the Austrian presidency are to have a form of “mandatory” solidarity whereby member states are free to help with migration either by taking in migrants, giving experts and equipment or contributing in some other way. However, Italy reportedly rejects this plan and wants more relocation of migrants. Background information: Finding solutions to migratory pressures
Background information: Reform of EU asylum rules
Commission factsheets on migration

Trade

In July 2018, President Trump and President Juncker came to an agreement on trade which provided for negotiations which would explore the possibility of negotiating a deal facilitating zero tariffs, zero non-tariff barriers and zero subsidies on non-auto industrial goods. Tariffs on automobiles are stopped for as long as there is suitable progress on negotiations, with the tariffs on steel and aluminium being reviewed.
Trump later dismissed the EU’s offer on tariffs as “not good enough” and said the EU’s trade policies were almost as bad as China’s after Commissioner for Trade Cecilia Malmström said the EU was “willing to bring down...our car tariffs to zero”, provided the USA did the same. The USA is holding out on the prospect of a partial trade deal within the next two months.
If tariffs on cars were to be introduced, the European Commission has been working on a list of US products that would face retaliatory tariffs.
Italy has threatened to veto the ratification of the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) negotiated with Canada. Currently, the trade deal is provisionally applied, meaning most of its provisions are in force pending the ratification of all member states. If a member state fails to ratify, provisional application has to be terminated.
In last year’s SOTEU speech, Juncker announced that all proposed negotiating mandates for future trade and investment details would be published, starting for the negotiations with Australia and New Zealand.
The status of the EU’s trade deal negotiations is as follows:
Country Status
Australia Negotiation, 2nd round in November
Canada Provisionally applied since 21st September 2017, but CJEU case pending on the compatibility of its court system with EU law. Austria’s and Belgium’s ratification depend on the outcome of this case.
Chile Negotiation, 3rd round concluded in June 2018, no new date set.
Indonesia Negotiation, 6th round in October 2018
Japan Signed, but yet to be ratified by the European Parliament and the Council of the EU. Aim to be applied by April 2019, before Brexit. No national ratification is needed.
Singapore Commission has proposed decision to sign and ratify the EU-Singapore agreements. The FTA will only need European Parliament and Council of Ministers approval, while the Investment Protection Agreement will need that in addition to national ratification.
Mercosur Negotiation, next round September 10th - 14th, will require national ratification.
New Zealand Negotiation, 1st round concluded in July 2018
Mexico Agreement in principle, aim to finish the legal text by the end of 2018.
Vietnam Currently undergoing translation into all EU languages, Commission will then propose to sign and ratify the deal. Also split into a Free Trade Agreement (EP/Council approval) and an Investment Protection Agreement (requiring national ratification).

Rule of Law

In December 2017, the European Commission activated Article 7(1) for the first time in the history of the EU, citing threats to the rule of law and judicial independence in Poland. Infringement proceedings have also been launched against the Law on Ordinary Courts, and most recently against the Law on the Supreme Court, which may have forced around 40% of Supreme Court judges to retire. The Supreme Court has suspended the law as it awaits the results of a CJEU case on the law.
The European Parliament will vote on whether or not to Article 7(1) against Hungary later today, determining a clear risk of a serious breach of the EU’s values, after the Civil Liberties committee adopted a report recommending its activation. The European Parliament will have to vote by a ⅔ majority to trigger the article, though abstentions will not count towards this threshold. The European People’s Party, of which the governing party of Hungary Fidesz is a member, will be given a free vote on the matter.
Following this, a hearing will be conducted of Hungary where the Council can address recommendations to it. The Council needs to vote by a ⅘ majority to actually determine a clear risk of a serious breach of the EU’s values. This is separate from Article 7(2), which is the process leading to sanctions.
As part of the 2021-2027 MFF proposals, the Commission has proposed a mechanism whereby EU funding could be suspended to member states that don’t have independent judiciaries or flout the rule of law. The Commission would propose to suspend funding, and the decision is presumed to be adopted unless a qualified majority of EU countries votes against it. Individual beneficiaries of EU funding through schemes such as Erasmus+ should not be affected.
In October 2018, the Commission intends to produce a mechanism to promote the rule of law in the European Union, though it is not yet clear what form this may take.
The Commission will also produce a document which discusses the possibility of expanding the competences of the European Public Prosecutor’s Office to fight cross-border terrorism, which currently has a mandate to fight fraud against the EU budget. 22 member states (all bar Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Poland, Sweden & the United Kingdom) are currently part of the project.

Brexit

The United Kingdom and the European Union have reached agreement on at least 80% of the draft withdrawal agreement text, including issues such as the rights of EU citizens post Brexit and the budgetary settlement that the UK will pay. Agreement was also reached on a transition period, where the UK would follow EU law and pay into the budget as if it was a member until December 31st, 2020. The UK can negotiate and sign deals during this period but not implement them unless authorised by the European Commission.
Negotiations are still needed on certain issues, such as the Protocol on Northern Ireland and the way a hard border can be avoided between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus, Gibraltar, data protection, ongoing police and judicial cooperation, the role of the EU Court of Justice and geographical indicators are other areas that are yet to be resolved.
The UK Government published a White Paper (also referred to as the ‘Chequers’ agreement) on July 12th, 2018, leading to the resignation of Cabinet ministers Boris Johnson and David Davis from the government. The EU has also opposed this agreement, with Chief EU negotiator Michel Barnier stating that accepting it could be “the end of the single market and the European project.” It is still controversial in the UK as well, with a former Brexit minister Steve Baker predicting up to 80 Conservative MPs could vote against the agreement. The UK government may even scrap the agreement if the EU gives way on its hard position on the Irish border.
Some EU member states are considering giving Barnier a new mandate to help close a Brexit deal, which will be discussed at the Salzburg summit in a week's time. The planned timing of a deal and the remaining sticking points such as the Irish border will be discussed. Formal guidelines would be adopted by the October European Council, and talks would aimed to be concluded at a hypothetical special Brexit summit in November. However, other sources have said that the current guidelines are sufficient and that the UK may not like the content of hypothetical new guidelines.
The Brexit withdrawal agreement will need the consent of the European Parliament and a reinforced qualified majority vote (72% of the states representing 65% of the population) in the Council of Ministers. It will be accompanied by a political declaration on the future relationship between the UK and the EU, though negotiations can’t properly start until the UK becomes a third country.
Background information: Brexit
Background information: Brexit negotiations

Internal Market

Following a public consultation in which 4.6 million European citizens replied, the European Commission will propose to scrap the biannual change in the clocks. 84% of those who responded were in favour of scrapping the change. Commissioner for Transport Violeta Bulc has stated the change was unlikely to happen before 2021 at the earliest. EU countries are free to decide on their own time zones.
A “digital tax” was proposed by the European Commission whereby EU member states would charge a 3% levy on large companies like Facebook, Twitter and Google. This idea has proved controversial, with countries such as Ireland preferring a solution adopted at a global level to avoid stifling investment and innovation.
To facilitate agreement on the file, France has said it could consider ways to compensate Ireland for possible lost revenues from the proposal, and a "sunset clause" has been suggested where by the EU tax would no longer have effect once the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) comes up with a global solution. The aim is to agree on the EU tax by the end of 2018.

Foreign Relations

High Representative Federica Mogherini wants to see a binding agreement on relations between Serbia and Kosovo by the end of her mandate in November 2019. Recently, there have been suggestions of ‘border swaps’ between Kosovo and Serbia to agree on a deal. Some have been receptive to the idea, but countries such as Germany have rejected any border changes.
Germany has begun construction of Nord Stream II in German coastal waters, a controversial gas pipeline with Russia, despite the threat of US sanctions on the companies involved in financing the pipeline and the objection of some Eastern European states. President Trump has started that the project would make Germany a “captive” of Russia.
Germany, Finland, Sweden and Russia have given approval for the pipeline to pass through their territorial waters, but Denmark’s approval is still pending. Nord Stream 2 filed an application to Denmark for a new route that would avoid Denmark’s territorial waters altogether.
The European Commission also published a plan to provide €18 million in aid to Iran following some US sanctions being re-introduced on August 6th. In November, the US will introduce sanctions on oil. The EU has introduced a ‘blocking statute’ which forbids companies from complying with US sanctions. If firms are wanting to pull out of Iran to comply with US sanctions, they should get EU authorisation, but not if it is a business decision.
A communication on extending the use of qualified majority voting (QMV) in foreign policy will be produced, exploring the possibility of introducing QMV rules on human rights, sanctions, and joint civilian mission decisions. Certain sanctions regimes may keep unanimity rules, but it could be used especially when the EU has to implement UN sanctions. It will require unanimous agreement among all member states to move from unanimity to qualified majority voting rules.

Environment

On Monday, the European Parliament’s Environment committee voted for cutting emissions for cars and vans by 20% by 2025 and 45% by 2030, above the targets of 15% and 30% proposed by the Commission. The plenary of the European Parliament will vote on the issue next month.
Carbon prices under the EU’s Emissions Trading System (ETS) hit a decade high in August 2018 at €20 a tonne, following reforms to introduce a Market Stability Reserve that removes excess credits from the market.
The ETS provides ‘licences’ to pollute a certain amount each year. Those businesses that don’t have enough licences for the amount of pollution they give off are required to purchase more else they are fined, while those who have more licences than needed can sell the excess. The cap is progressively reduced over time so as to reduce carbon emissions within the EU.
The European Commission will potentially produce a long-term EU strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in November 2018.

Previous State of the European Union Speeches

2017

President Juncker presented a much more upbeat picture of the state of the EU, saying "the wind is back in Europe's sails." He rejected calls for a multi-speed Europe, stating that “Europe must breathe with both lungs. Otherwise our continent will struggle for air.” He also stated that now was the time for completing the “European House” as the “sun is shining”.
He announced various proposals, such as creating an EU Cybersecurity Agency, trade negotiations with Australia and New Zealand, reforms of the Eurozone, opening up Schengen to Bulgaria and Romania, and moving to more qualified majority voting for certain decisions.

2016

For Juncker’s second SOTEU speech, he again put forward a somewhat gloomy picture of the state of the EU, stating that “our European Union is, at least in part, in an existential crisis”. This speech followed the UK’s vote to leave the European Union in June 2016.
He mentioned how the EU was currently facing many “unresolved problems”, and revealed proposals the Commission would be putting forward over the next year to try to resolve them, attempting to create a Europe that “protects, empowers and defends”.

2015

Juncker’s first SOTEU speech as Commission President mentioned how there was “not enough Union in this Union”, painting a somewhat dark picture of the state of the European Union at the time.
The main topics of his speech were migration, the Eurozone crisis, the UK’s (then) future referendum on EU membership, EU-Ukraine relations and addressing climate change.

2014

There was no State of the Union speech, as it was the year of the European Parliament elections.
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2018.08.29 20:43 dana_nomad TOEFL/IELTS Instructor needed in Huizhou

Job Summary & Responsibilities

About the school
About the contract
About you
Summary Our client is a brand new English training center in Huizhou. The center will offer Adult Cambridge English training, test prep/university counselling, and eventually a Kindergarten. The center plans to open in October of 2018 with a handful of experienced teachers. This center plans to grow quickly as the demand for English centers far outweighs the supply in Huizhou at the moment. This is a great opportunity to join a growing school at the ground floor! There will be lots of opportunity for upward mobility and possibly immediate leadership roles. Huizhou is a city in Guangdong province in South China, a less than 2 hour train ride from Shenzhen and Hong Kong. A high speed railway is currently under construction which will connect Huizhou to Shenzhen in 25 minutes. With a population of 5 million and it's location within the very popular Guangdong province, Huizhou is safe and comfortable tier two city with a strong ex-patriot population.

To apply: Please send your resume to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]). Please mention the title of the job you're applying for and that you saw this post on Reddit.

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2018.07.17 01:46 Chtorrr cat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the cat species that is commonly kept as a pet. For the cat family, see Felidae. For other uses, see Cat (disambiguation) and Cats (disambiguation). For technical reasons, "Cat #1" redirects here. For the album, see Cat 1 (album). Domestic cat[1] Cat poster 1.jpg Various types of domestic cat Conservation status Domesticated Scientific classification e Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Subfamily: Felinae Genus: Felis Species: F. silvestris Subspecies: F. s. catus Trinomial name Felis silvestris catus Linnaeus, 1758[2] Synonyms Felis catus (original combination)[3] Felis catus domestica (invalid junior synonym)[4]
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus)[1][5] is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal. They are often called house cats[6] when kept as indoor pets or simply cats when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. They are often valued by humans for companionship and for their ability to hunt vermin. There are more than seventy cat breeds recognized by various cat registries.
Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with a strong flexible body, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cat senses fit a crepuscular and predatory ecological niche. Cats can hear sounds too faint or too high in frequency for human ears, such as those made by mice and other small animals. They can see in near darkness. Like most other mammals, cats have poorer color vision and a better sense of smell than humans. Cats, despite being solitary hunters, are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalizations (mewing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as cat pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.[7]
Cats have a high breeding rate.[8] Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown as registered pedigree pets, a hobby known as cat fancy. Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering, as well as the abandonment of former household pets, has resulted in large numbers of feral cats worldwide, requiring population control.[9] In certain areas outside cats' native range, this has contributed, along with habitat destruction and other factors, to the extinction of many bird species. Cats have been known to extirpate a bird species within specific regions and may have contributed to the extinction of isolated island populations.[10] Cats are thought to be primarily responsible for the extinction of 87 species of birds,[11] and the presence of feral and free-ranging cats makes some otherwise suitable locations unsuitable for attempted species reintroduction.[12]
Because cats were venerated in ancient Egypt, they were commonly believed to have been domesticated there,[13] but there may have been instances of domestication as early as the Neolithic from around 9,500 years ago (7500 BC).[14] A genetic study in 2007[15] concluded that all domestic cats are descended from Near Eastern wildcats, having diverged around 8000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16] A 2016 study found that leopard cats were undergoing domestication independently in China around 5500 BC, though this line of partially domesticated cats leaves no trace in the domesticated populations of today.[17][18] A 2017 study confirmed that domestic cats are descendants of those first domesticated by farmers in the Near East around 9,000 years ago.[19][20]
As of a 2007 study, cats are the second-most popular pet in the U.S. by number of pets owned, behind freshwater fish.[21] In a 2010 study, they were ranked the third-most popular pet in the UK, after fish and dogs, with around 8 million being owned.[22]
Contents 1 Taxonomy and evolution 2 Nomenclature and etymology 3 Biology 3.1 Anatomy 3.2 Physiology 3.2.1 Nutrition 3.3 Senses 3.4 Health 3.4.1 Diseases 3.5 Genetics 4 Behavior 4.1 Sociability 4.2 Communication 4.3 Grooming 4.4 Fighting 4.5 Hunting and feeding 4.6 Running 4.7 Play 4.8 Reproduction 5 Ecology 5.1 Habitats 5.2 Feral cats 5.3 Impact on prey species 5.4 Impact on birds 6 Interaction with humans 6.1 Cat show 6.2 Cat café 6.3 Ailurophobia 6.4 Cat bites 6.5 Infections transmitted from cats to humans 6.6 History and mythology 6.6.1 Superstitions and cat burning 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Taxonomy and evolution Main article: Cat evolution The domestic cat is a member of the cat family, the felids, which are a rapidly evolving family of mammals that share a common ancestor only 10–15 million years ago[23] and include lions, tigers, cougars and many others. Within this family, domestic cats (Felis catus) are part of the genus Felis, which is a group of small cats containing about seven species (depending upon classification scheme).[1][24] Members of the genus are found worldwide and include the jungle cat (Felis chaus) of southeast Asia, European wildcat (F. silvestris silvestris), African wildcat (F. s. lybica), the Chinese mountain cat (F. bieti), and the Arabian sand cat (F. margarita), among others.[25]
The domestic cat is believed to have evolved from the Near Eastern wildcat, whose range covers vast portions of the Middle East westward to the Atlantic coast of Africa.[26][27] Between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago the animal gave rise to the genetic lineage that eventually produced all domesticated cats,[28] having diverged from the Near Eastern wildcat around 8,000 BC in the Middle East.[13][16]
The domestic cat was first classified as Felis catus by Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae published in 1758.[1][2] Because of modern phylogenetics, domestic cats are usually regarded as another subspecies of the wildcat, F. silvestris.[1][29][30] This has resulted in mixed usage of the terms, as the domestic cat can be called by its subspecies name, Felis silvestris catus.[1][29][30] Wildcats have also been referred to as various subspecies of F. catus,[30] but in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature fixed the name for wildcats as F. silvestris.[31] The most common name in use for the domestic cat remains F. catus. Sometimes, the domestic cat has been called Felis domesticus[32] as proposed by German naturalist J. C. P. Erxleben in 1777,[33] but these are not valid taxonomic names and have been used only rarely in scientific literature.[34] A population of Transcaucasian black feral cats was once classified as Felis daemon (Satunin 1904) but now this population is considered to be a part of the domestic cat.[35]
All the cats in this genus share a common ancestor that is believed to have lived around 6–7 million years ago in the Near East (the Middle East).[36] The exact relationships within the Felidae are close but still uncertain,[37][38] e.g. the Chinese mountain cat is sometimes classified (under the name Felis silvestris bieti) as a subspecies of the wildcat, like the North African variety F. s. lybica.[29][37]
Ancient Egyptian sculpture of the cat goddess Bastet. The earliest evidence of felines as Egyptian deities comes from c. 3100 BC. In comparison to dogs, cats have not undergone major changes during the domestication process, as the form and behavior of the domestic cat is not radically different from those of wildcats and domestic cats are perfectly capable of surviving in the wild.[39][40] Fully domesticated house cats often interbreed with feral F. catus populations,[41] producing hybrids such as the Kellas cat. This limited evolution during domestication means that hybridisation can occur with many other felids, notably the Asian leopard cat.[42] Several natural behaviors and characteristics of wildcats may have predisposed them for domestication as pets.[40] These traits include their small size, social nature, obvious body language, love of play and relatively high intelligence.[43]:12–17 Several small felid species may have an inborn tendency towards tameness.[40]
Cats have either a mutualistic or commensal relationship with humans. Two main theories are given about how cats were domesticated. In one, people deliberately tamed cats in a process of artificial selection as they were useful predators of vermin.[44] This has been criticized as implausible, because the reward for such an effort may have been too little; cats generally do not carry out commands and although they do eat rodents, other species such as ferrets or terriers may be better at controlling these pests.[29] The alternative idea is that cats were simply tolerated by people and gradually diverged from their wild relatives through natural selection, as they adapted to hunting the vermin found around humans in towns and villages.[29]
Nomenclature and etymology The origin of the English word cat (Old English catt) and its counterparts in other Germanic languages (such as German Katze), descended from Proto-Germanic *kattōn-, is controversial. It has traditionally thought to be a borrowing from Late Latin cattus, 'domestic cat', from catta (used around 75 AD by Martial),[45][46] compare also Byzantine Greek κάττα, Portuguese and Spanish gato, French chat, Maltese qattus, Lithuanian katė, and Old Church Slavonic kotъ (kotka), among others.[47] The Late Latin word is generally thought to originate from an Afro-Asiatic language, but every proposed source word has presented problems. Many references refer to "Berber" (Kabyle) kaddîska, 'wildcat', and Nubian kadīs as possible sources or cognates, but M. Lionel Bender suggesets the Nubian term is a loan from Arabic قِطَّة qiṭṭa.[48] Jean-Paul Savignac suggests the Latin word is from an Ancient Egyptian precursor of Coptic ϣⲁⲩ šau, 'tomcat', or its feminine form suffixed with -t,[49] but John Huehnergard says "the source [...] was clearly not Egyptian itself, where no analogous form is attested."[48] Huehnergard opines it is "equally likely that the forms might derive from an ancient Germanic word, imported into Latin and thence to Greek and to Syriac and Arabic". Guus Kroonen also considers the word to be native to Germanic (due to morphological alternations) and Northern Europe, and suggests that it might ultimately be borrowed from Uralic, cf. Northern Sami gađfe, 'female stoat', and Hungarian hölgy, 'stoat'; from Proto-Uralic *käďwä, 'female (of a furred animal)'.[50] In any case, cat is a classic example of a Wanderwort.
An alternative word is English puss (extended as pussy and pussycat). Attested only from the 16th century, it may have been introduced from Dutch poes or from Low German puuskatte, related to Swedish kattepus, or Norwegian pus, pusekatt. Similar forms exist in Lithuanian puižė and Irish puisín or puiscín. The etymology of this word is unknown, but it may have simply arisen from a sound used to attract a cat.[51][52]
A group of cats can be referred to as a clowder or a glaring;[53] a male cat is called a tom or tomcat[54] (or a gib,[55] if neutered); an unspayed female is called a queen,[56] especially in a cat-breeding context; and a juvenile cat is referred to as a kitten. The male progenitor of a cat, especially a pedigreed cat, is its sire,[57] and its mother is its dam[58] In Early Modern English, the word kitten was interchangeable with the now obsolete word catling.[59]
A pedigreed cat is one whose ancestry is recorded by a cat fancier organization. A purebred (or pure-bred) cat is one whose ancestry contains only individuals of the same breed. Many pedigreed and especially purebred cats are exhibited as show cats. Cats of unrecorded, mixed ancestry are referred to as domestic short-haired or domestic long-haired cats (by coat type), or commonly as random-bred, moggies (chiefly British), or (using terms borrowed from dog breeding) mongrels or mutt-cats.
While the African wildcat is the ancestral subspecies from which domestic cats are descended, and wildcats and domestic cats can completely interbreed (being subspecies of the same species), several intermediate stages occur between domestic pet and pedigree cats on one hand and entirely wild animals on the other. The semi-feral cat, a mostly outdoor cat, is not owned by any one individual, but is generally friendly to people and may be fed by several households. Truly feral cats are associated with human habitation areas, foraging for food and sometimes intermittently fed by people, but are typically wary of human interaction.[41]
Biology Anatomy Main article: Cat anatomy
Diagram of the general anatomy of a male Domestic cats are similar in size to the other members of the genus Felis, typically weighing between 4 and 5 kg (9 and 10 lb).[37] Some breeds, such as the Maine Coon, can occasionally exceed 11 kg (24 lb). Conversely, very small cats, less than 2 kg (4 lb), have been reported.[60] The world record for the largest cat is 21 kg (50 lb).[61][self-published source] The smallest adult cat ever officially recorded weighed around 1 kg (2 lb).[61] Feral cats tend to be lighter, as they have more limited access to food than house cats. The Boston Cat Hospital weighted trapped feral cats, and found the average feral adult male to weigh 4 kg (9 lb), and average adult female 3 kg (7 lb).[62] Cats average about 23–25 cm (9–10 in) in height and 46 cm (18 in) in head/body length (males being larger than females), with tails averaging 30 cm (12 in) in length;[63] feral cats may be smaller on average.
Cats have seven cervical vertebrae, as do almost all mammals; 13 thoracic vertebrae (humans have 12); seven lumbar vertebrae (humans have five); three sacral vertebrae like most mammals (humans have five); and a variable number of caudal vertebrae in the tail (humans have only vestigial caudal vertebrae, fused into an internal coccyx).[64]:11 The extra lumbar and thoracic vertebrae account for the cat's spinal mobility and flexibility. Attached to the spine are 13 ribs, the shoulder, and the pelvis.[64] :16 Unlike human arms, cat forelimbs are attached to the shoulder by free-floating clavicle bones which allow them to pass their body through any space into which they can fit their head.[65]
Cat skull The cat skull is unusual among mammals in having very large eye sockets and a powerful and specialized jaw.[66]:35 Within the jaw, cats have teeth adapted for killing prey and tearing meat. When it overpowers its prey, a cat delivers a lethal neck bite with its two long canine teeth, inserting them between two of the prey's vertebrae and severing its spinal cord, causing irreversible paralysis and death.[67] Compared to other felines, domestic cats have narrowly spaced canine teeth, which is an adaptation to their preferred prey of small rodents, which have small vertebrae.[67] The premolar and first molar together compose the carnassial pair on each side of the mouth, which efficiently shears meat into small pieces, like a pair of scissors. These are vital in feeding, since cats' small molars cannot chew food effectively, and cats are largely incapable of mastication.[66]:37 Although cats tend to have better teeth than most humans, with decay generally less likely because of a thicker protective layer of enamel, a less damaging saliva, less retention of food particles between teeth, and a diet mostly devoid of sugar, they are nonetheless subject to occasional tooth loss and infection.[68]
Cats, like dogs, are digitigrades. They walk directly on their toes, with the bones of their feet making up the lower part of the visible leg.[69] Cats are capable of walking very precisely because, like all felines, they directly register; that is, they place each hind paw (almost) directly in the print of the corresponding fore paw, minimizing noise and visible tracks. This also provides sure footing for their hind paws when they navigate rough terrain. Unlike most mammals, when cats walk, they use a "pacing" gait; that is, they move the two legs on one side of the body before the legs on the other side. This trait is shared with camels and giraffes. As a walk speeds up into a trot, a cat's gait changes to be a "diagonal" gait, similar to that of most other mammals (and many other land animals, such as lizards): the diagonally opposite hind and fore legs move simultaneously.[70]
Like almost all members of the Felidae, cats have protractable and retractable claws.[71] In their normal, relaxed position, the claws are sheathed with the skin and fur around the paw's toe pads. This keeps the claws sharp by preventing wear from contact with the ground and allows the silent stalking of prey. The claws on the fore feet are typically sharper than those on the hind feet.[72] Cats can voluntarily extend their claws on one or more paws. They may extend their claws in hunting or self-defense, climbing, kneading, or for extra traction on soft surfaces. Most cats have five claws on their front paws, and four on their rear paws.[73] The fifth front claw (the dewclaw) is proximal to the other claws. More proximally is a protrusion which appears to be a sixth "finger". This special feature of the front paws, on the inside of the wrists, is the carpal pad, also found on the paws of big cats and dogs. It has no function in normal walking, but is thought to be an antiskidding device used while jumping. Some breeds of cats are prone to polydactyly (extra toes and claws).[73] These are particularly common along the northeast coast of North America.[74]
Physiology Cats are familiar and easily kept animals, and their physiology has been particularly well studied; it generally resembles those of other carnivorous mammals, but displays several unusual features probably attributable to cats' descent from desert-dwelling species.[32] For instance, cats are able to tolerate quite high temperatures: Humans generally start to feel uncomfortable when their skin temperature passes about 38 °C (100 °F), but cats show no discomfort until their skin reaches around 52 °C (126 °F),[66]:46 and can tolerate temperatures of up to 56 °C (133 °F) if they have access to water.[75]
Normal physiological values[76]:330 Body temperature 38.6 °C (101.5 °F) Heart rate 120–140 beats per minute Breathing rate 16–40 breaths per minute
Thermograph of various body parts of a cat Cats conserve heat by reducing the flow of blood to their skin and lose heat by evaporation through their mouths. Cats have minimal ability to sweat, with glands located primarily in their paw pads,[77] and pant for heat relief only at very high temperatures[78] (but may also pant when stressed). A cat's body temperature does not vary throughout the day; this is part of cats' general lack of circadian rhythms and may reflect their tendency to be active both during the day and at night.[79]:1 Cats' feces are comparatively dry and their urine is highly concentrated, both of which are adaptations to allow cats to retain as much water as possible.[32] Their kidneys are so efficient, they can survive on a diet consisting only of meat, with no additional water,[80] and can even rehydrate by drinking seawater.[81][79]:29While domestic cats are able to swim, they are generally reluctant to enter water as it quickly leads to exhaustion.[82]
Nutrition Cats are obligate carnivores: their physiology has evolved to efficiently process meat, and they have difficulty digesting plant matter.[32] In contrast to omnivores such as rats, which only require about 4% protein in their diet, about 20% of a cat's diet must be protein.[32] A cat's gastrointestinal tract is adapted to meat eating, being much shorter than that of omnivores and having low levels of several of the digestive enzymes needed to digest carbohydrates.[83] These traits severely limit the cat's ability to digest and use plant-derived nutrients, as well as certain fatty acids.[83] Despite the cat's meat-oriented physiology, several vegetarian or vegan cat foods have been marketed that are supplemented with chemically synthesized taurine and other nutrients, in attempts to produce a complete diet. However, some of these products still fail to provide all the nutrients cats require,[84] and diets containing no animal products pose the risk of causing severe nutritional deficiencies.[85] However, veterinarians in the United States have expressed concern that many domestic cats are overfed.[86]
Cats do eat grass occasionally. A proposed explanation is that cats use grass as a source of folic acid. Another is that it is used to supply dietary fiber, helping the cat defecate more easily and expel parasites and other harmful material through feces and vomit.[87]
Cats are unusually dependent on a constant supply of the amino acid arginine, and a diet lacking arginine causes marked weight loss and can be rapidly fatal.[88] Arginine is an essential additive in cat food because cats have low levels of the enzymes aminotransferase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate which are responsible for the synthesis of ornithine and citrulline in the small intestine.[89] Citrulline would typically go on to the kidneys to make arginine, but because cats have a deficiency in the enzymes that make it, citrulline is not produced in adequate quantities to make arginine. Arginine is essential in the urea cycle in order to convert the toxic component ammonia into urea that can then be excreted in the urine. Because of its essential role, deficiency in arginine results in a build up of toxic ammonia and leads to hyperammonemia.[89] The symptoms of hyperammonemia include lethargy, vomiting, ataxia, hyperesthesia and can be serious enough to induce death and coma in a matter of days if a cat is being fed an arginine-free diet. The quick onset of these symptoms is due to the fact that diets devoid in arginine will typically still contain all of the other amino acids, which will continue to be catabolized by the body, producing mass amounts of ammonia that very quickly build up with no way of being excreted.
Another unusual feature is that the cat cannot produce taurine,[note 1] with a deficiency in this nutrient causing macular degeneration, wherein the cat's retina slowly breaks down, causing irreversible blindness.[32] This is due to the hepatic activity of cystinesulfinic acid decarboxylase being low in cats.[91] This limits the ability of cats to biosynthesize the taurine they need from its precursor, the amino acid cysteine, which ultimately results in inadequate taurine production needed for normal function.[91] Deficiencies in taurine result in compensated function of feline cardiovascular and reproductive systems.[91] These abnormalities can also be accompanied by developmental issues in the central nervous system along with degeneration of the retina.[91]
In order to produce the essential vitamin niacin for use in the cat, tryptophan is needed for conversion purposes. However, due to a competing pathway with acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), niacin can become deficient and require supplementation.[92] This process occurs when an overactive enzyme, picolinic acid carboxylase, converts the vitamin B6 precursor picolinic acid into the alternate compound acetyl-CoA, instead of converting quinolinate into nictotinic acid mononlucleotide (niacin).[93] Niacin is required in cats as it supports enzyme function. If niacin is deficient in the diet, anorexia, weight loss and an increase in body temperature can result.[94]
Preformed vitamin A is required in the cat for retinal and reproductive health. Vitamin A is considered to be a fat-soluble vitamin and is seen as essential in a cat's diet. Normally, the conversion of beta-carotenes into vitamin A occurs in the intestine (more specifically the mucosal layer) of species, however cats lack the ability to undergo this process.[92] Both the kidney and liver are contributors to the use of vitamin A in the body of the majority of species while the cats liver does not produce the enzyme Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase which converts the beta-carotene into retinol (vitamin A).[95] To summarize: cats do not have high levels of this enzyme leading to the cleavage and oxidation of carotenoids not taking place.[93]
Vitamin D3 is a dietary requirement for cats as they lack the ability to synthesize vitamin D3 from sunlight.[96] Cats obtain high levels of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholestrol delta 7 reductase which causes immediate conversion of vitamin D3 from sunlight to 7-dehydrocholesterol.[97] This fat soluble vitamin is required in cats for bone formation through the promotion of calcium retention, along with nerve and muscle control through absorption of calcium and phosphorus.[97]
Cats, like all mammals, need to get linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid, from their diet. Most mammals can convert linoleic acid to arachidonic acid, as well as the omega 3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) through the activity of enzymes, but this process is very limited in cats.[92] The Δ6-desaturase enzyme eventually converts linoleic acid, which is in its salt form linoleate, to arachidonate (salt form of arachidonic acid) in the liver, but this enzyme has very little activity in cats.[92] This means that arachidonic acid is an essential fatty acid for cats as they lack the ability to create required amounts of linoleic acid. Deficiency of arachidonic acid in cats is related to problems in growth, can cause injury and inflammation to skin (e.g. around the mouth) decreased platelet aggregation, fatty liver, increase in birth defects of kittens whose queens were deficient during pregnancy, and reproductive failure in queens.[92] Arachidonic acid can also be metabolized to eicosanoids that create inflammatory responses which are needed to stimulate proper growth and repair mechanisms in the cat.[98]
Cat food § Nutrient chart provides a list of the many nutrients cats require as well as the use of the nutrients in the body and the effects of the deficiency.
Senses Main article: Cat senses
Reflection of camera flash from the tapetum lucidum Cats have excellent night vision and can see at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision.[66]:43 This is partly the result of cat eyes having a tapetum lucidum, which reflects any light that passes through the retina back into the eye, thereby increasing the eye's sensitivity to dim light.[99] Another adaptation to dim light is the large pupils of cats' eyes. Unlike some big cats, such as tigers, domestic cats have slit pupils.[100] These slit pupils can focus bright light without chromatic aberration, and are needed since the domestic cat's pupils are much larger, relative to their eyes, than the pupils of the big cats.[100] At low light levels, a cat's pupils will expand to cover most of the exposed surface of its eyes.[101] However, domestic cats have rather poor color vision and (like most nonprimate mammals) have only two types of cones, optimized for sensitivity to blue and yellowish green; they have limited ability to distinguish between red and green.[102] A 1993 paper reported a response to middle wavelengths from a system other than the rods which might be due to a third type of cone. However, this appears to be an adaptation to low light levels rather than representing true trichromatic vision.[103]
Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz to 79,000 Hz, a range of 10.5 octaves, while humans and dogs both have ranges of about 9 octaves.[104][105] Cats can hear ultrasound, which is important in hunting[106] because many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls.[107] However, they do not communicate using ultrasound like rodents do. Cats' hearing is also sensitive and among the best of any mammal,[104] being most acute in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz.[108] This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help detect the direction of a noise.[106]
Cats have an acute sense of smell, due in part to their well-developed olfactory bulb and a large surface of olfactory mucosa, about 5.8 cm2 (0.90 in2) in area, which is about twice that of humans.[109] Cats are sensitive to pheromones such as 3-mercapto-3-methylbutan-1-ol,[110] which they use to communicate through urine spraying and marking with scent glands.[111] Many cats also respond strongly to plants that contain nepetalactone, especially catnip, as they can detect that substance at less than one part per billion.[112] About 70–80% of cats are affected by nepetalactone.[113] This response is also produced by other plants, such as silver vine (Actinidia polygama) and the herb valerian; it may be caused by the smell of these plants mimicking a pheromone and stimulating cats' social or sexual behaviors.[114]
Cats have relatively few taste buds compared to humans (470 or so versus more than 9,000 on the human tongue).[115] Domestic and wild cats share a gene mutation that keeps their sweet taste buds from binding to sugary molecules, leaving them with no ability to taste sweetness.[116] Their taste buds instead respond to acids, amino acids like protein, and bitter tastes.[117] Cats and many other animals have a Jacobson's organ in their mouths that is used in the behavioral process of flehmening. It allows them to sense certain aromas in a way that humans cannot. Cats also have a distinct temperature preference for their food, preferring food with a temperature around 38 °C (100 °F) which is similar to that of a fresh kill and routinely rejecting food presented cold or refrigerated (which would signal to the cat that the "prey" item is long dead and therefore possibly toxic or decomposing).[115]
The whiskers of a cat are highly sensitive to touch. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable whiskers (vibrissae) over their body, especially their faces. These provide information on the width of gaps and on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage.[66]:47
File:BIOASTRONAUTICS RESEARCH Gov.archives.arc.68700.ogv Comparison of cat righting reflexes in gravity versus zero gravity Most breeds of cat have a noted fondness for settling in high places, or perching. In the wild, a higher place may serve as a concealed site from which to hunt; domestic cats may strike prey by pouncing from a perch such as a tree branch, as does a leopard.[118] Another possible explanation is that height gives the cat a better observation point, allowing it to survey its territory. During a fall from a high place, a cat can reflexively twist its body and right itself using its acute sense of balance and flexibility.[119] This is known as the cat righting reflex. An individual cat always rights itself in the same way, provided it has the time to do so, during a fall. The height required for this to occur is around 90 cm (3.0 ft). Cats without a tail (e.g. many specimens of the Manx and Cymric breeds) also have this ability, since a cat mostly relies on leg movement and conservation of angular momentum to set up for landing, and the tail is little used for this feat.[120] Their excellent sense of balance allows cats to move with great stability. A cat falling from heights of up to 3 meters can right itself and land on its paws.[121]
Health Main articles: Cat health and Aging in cats The average lifespan of pet cats has risen in recent years. In the early 1980s, it was about seven years,[122]:33[123] rising to 9.4 years in 1995[122]:33 and 15.1 years in 2018.[124] However, cats have been reported as surviving into their 30s,[125] with the oldest known cat, Creme Puff, dying at a verified age of 38.[126]
Spaying or neutering increases life expectancy: one study found neutered male cats live twice as long as intact males, while spayed female cats live 62% longer than intact females.[122]:35 Having a cat neutered confers health benefits, because castrated males cannot develop testicular cancer, spayed females cannot develop uterine or ovarian cancer, and both have a reduced risk of mammary cancer.[127]
Despite widespread concern about the welfare of free-roaming cats, the lifespans of neutered feral cats in managed colonies compare favorably with those of pet cats.[128]:45[129]:1358 [130][131][132][133]
Diseases Main article: Feline diseases A wide range of health problems may affect cats, including infectious diseases, parasites, injuries, and chronic disease. Vaccinations are available for many of these diseases, and domestic cats are regularly given treatments to eliminate parasites such as worms and fleas.[134]
Genetics Main article: Cat genetics The domesticated cat and its closest wild ancestor are both diploid organisms that possess 38 chromosomes[135] and roughly 20,000 genes.[136] About 250 heritable genetic disorders have been identified in cats, many similar to human inborn errors.[137] The high level of similarity among the metabolism of mammals allows many of these feline diseases to be diagnosed using genetic tests that were originally developed for use in humans, as well as the use of cats as animal models in the study of the human diseases.[138][139]
Behavior See also: Cat behavior and Cat intelligence A black-and-white cat on a fence A cat on a fence Outdoor cats are active both day and night, although they tend to be slightly more active at night.[140][141] The timing of cats' activity is quite flexible and varied, which means house cats may be more active in the morning and evening, as a response to greater human activity at these times.[142] Although they spend the majority of their time in the vicinity of their home, housecats can range many hundreds of meters from this central point, and are known to establish territories that vary considerably in size, in one study ranging from 7 to 28 hectares (17–69 acres).[141]
Cats conserve energy by sleeping more than most animals, especially as they grow older. The daily duration of sleep varies, usually between 12 and 16 hours, with 13 and 14 being the average. Some cats can sleep as much as 20 hours. The term "cat nap" for a short rest refers to the cat's tendency to fall asleep (lightly) for a brief period. While asleep, cats experience short periods of rapid eye movement sleep often accompanied by muscle twitches, which suggests they are dreaming.[143]
Sociability
Social grooming Although wildcats are solitary, the social behavior of domestic cats is much more variable and ranges from widely dispersed individuals to feral cat colonies that gather around a food source, based on groups of co-operating females.[144][145] Within such groups, one cat is usually dominant over the others.[34] Each cat in a colony holds a distinct territory, with sexually active males having the largest territories, which are about 10 times larger than those of female cats and may overlap with several females' territories.[111] These territories are marked by urine spraying, by rubbing objects at head height with secretions from facial glands, and by defecation.[111] Between these territories are neutral areas where cats watch and greet one another without territorial conflicts. Outside these neutral areas, territory holders usually chase away stranger cats, at first by staring, hissing, and growling, and if that does not work, by short but noisy and violent attacks. Despite some cats cohabiting in colonies, they do not have a social survival strategy, or a pack mentality, and always hunt alone.[146]
Cat with an Alaskan Malamute dog However, some pet cats are poorly socialized. In particular, older cats may show aggressiveness towards newly arrived kittens, which may include biting and scratching; this type of behavior is known as feline asocial aggression.[147]
Though cats and dogs are often characterized as natural enemies, they can live together if correctly socialized.[148]
Life in proximity to humans and other domestic animals has led to a symbiotic social adaptation in cats, and cats may express great affection toward humans or other animals. Ethologically, the human keeper of a cat may function as a sort of surrogate for the cat's mother,[149] and adult housecats live their lives in a kind of extended kittenhood,[150] a form of behavioral neoteny. The high-pitched sounds housecats make to solicit food may mimic the cries of a hungry human infant, making them particularly hard for humans to ignore.[151]
Domestic cats' scent rubbing behavior towards humans or other cats is thought to be a feline means for social bonding.[152]
Communication Main article: Cat communication Domestic cats use many vocalizations for communication, including purring, trilling, hissing, growling/snarling, grunting, and several different forms of meowing.[7] (By contrast, feral cats are generally silent.)[153]:208 Their types of body language, including position of ears and tail, relaxation of the whole body, and kneading of the paws, are all indicators of mood. The tail and ears are particularly important social signal mechanisms in cats;[154][155] for example, a raised tail acts as a friendly greeting, and flattened ears indicates hostility. Tail-raising also indicates the cat's position in the group's social hierarchy, with dominant individuals raising their tails less often than subordinate animals.[155] Nose-to-nose touching is also a common greeting and may be followed by social grooming, which is solicited by one of the cats raising and tilting its head.[145]
Purring may have developed as an evolutionary advantage as a signalling mechanism of reassurance between mother cats and nursing kittens. Post-nursing cats often purr as a sign of contentment: when being petted, becoming relaxed,[156][157] or eating. The mechanism by which cats purr is elusive. The cat has no unique anatomical feature that is clearly responsible for the sound.[158] It was, until recent times, believed that only the cats of the Felis genus could purr. However, felids of the genus Panthera (tiger, lion, jaguar, and leopard) also produce non-continuous sounds, called chuffs, similar to purring, but only when exhaling.[159]
Grooming
The hooked papillae on a cat's tongue act like a hairbrush to help clean and detangle fur. File:Housecat Grooming Itself.webm A tabby housecat uses its brush-like tongue to groom itself, licking its fur to straighten it. Cats are known for spending considerable amounts of time licking their coat to keep it clean.[160] The cat's tongue has backwards-facing spines about 500 μm long, which are called papillae. These contain keratin which makes them rigid[161] so the papillae act like a hairbrush. Some cats, particularly longhaired cats, occasionally regurgitate hairballs of fur that have collected in their stomachs from grooming. These clumps of fur are usually sausage-shaped and about 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Hairballs can be prevented with remedies that ease elimination of the hair through the gut, as well as regular grooming of the coat with a comb or stiff brush.[160]
Fighting Among domestic cats, males are more likely to fight than females.[162] Among feral cats, the most common reason for cat fighting is competition between two males to mate with a female. In such cases, most fights are won by the heavier male.[163] Another common reason for fighting in domestic cats is the difficulty of establishing territories within a small home.[162] Female cats also fight over territory or to defend their kittens. Neutering will decrease or eliminate this behavior in many cases, suggesting that the behavior is linked to sex hormones.[164]
An arched back, raised fur and an open-mouthed hiss can all be signs of aggression in a domestic cat. When cats become aggressive, they try to make themselves appear larger and more threatening by raising their fur, arching their backs, turning sideways and hissing or spitting.[154] Often, the ears are pointed down and back to avoid damage to the inner ear and potentially listen for any changes behind them while focused forward. They may also vocalize loudly and bare their teeth in an effort to further intimidate their opponent. Fights usually consist of grappling and delivering powerful slaps to the face and body with the forepaws as well as bites. Cats also throw themselves to the ground in a defensive posture to rake their opponent's belly with their powerful hind legs.[165]
Serious damage is rare, as the fights are usually short in duration, with the loser running away with little more than a few scratches to the face and ears. However, fights for mating rights are typically more severe and injuries may include deep puncture wounds and lacerations. Normally, serious injuries from fighting are limited to infections of scratches and bites, though these can occasionally kill cats if untreated. In addition, bites are probably the main route of transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus.[166] Sexually active males are usually involved in many fights during their lives, and often have decidedly battered faces with obvious scars and cuts to their ears and nose.[167]
Hunting and feeding
A cat that is playing with a caught mouse. Cats play with their prey to weaken or exhaust them before making a kill.
A domestic cat with its prey Cats hunt small prey, primarily birds and rodents,[168] and are often used as a form of pest control.[169][170] Domestic cats are a major predator of wildlife in the United States, killing an estimated 1.4 to 3.7 billion birds and 6.9 to 20.7 billion mammals annually.[171][172] The bulk of predation in the United States is done by 80 million feral and stray cats. Effective measures to reduce this population are elusive, meeting opposition from cat enthusiasts.[171][172] In the case of free-ranging pets, equipping cats with bells and not letting them out at night will reduce wildlife predation.[168]
Free-fed feral cats and house cats tend to consume many small meals in a single day, although the frequency and size of meals varies between individuals.[146] Cats use two hunting strategies, either stalking prey actively, or waiting in ambush until an animal comes close enough to be captured.[173] Although it is not certain, the strategy used may depend on the prey species in the area, with cats waiting in ambush outside burrows, but tending to actively stalk birds.[174]:153
Perhaps the best known element of cats' hunting behavior, which is commonly misunderstood and often appalls cat owners because it looks like torture, is that cats often appear to "play" with prey by releasing it after capture. This behavior is due to an instinctive imperative to ensure that the prey is weak enough to be killed without endangering the cat.[175] This behavior is referred to in the idiom "cat-and-mouse game" or simply "cat and mouse".
Another poorly understood element of cat hunting behavior is the presentation of prey to human guardians. Ethologist Paul Leyhausen proposed that cats adopt humans into their social group and share excess kill with others in the group according to the dominance hierarchy, in which humans are reacted to as if they are at, or near, the top.[176] Anthropologist and zoologist Desmond Morris, in his 1986 book Catwatching, suggests, when cats bring home mice or birds, they are attempting to teach their human to hunt, or trying to help their human as if feeding "an elderly cat, or an inept kitten".[177][178] Morris's hypothesis is inconsistent with the fact that male cats also bring home prey, despite males having negligible involvement with raising kittens.[174]:153
Domestic cats select food based on its temperature, smell and texture; they dislike chilled foods and respond most strongly to moist foods rich in amino acids, which are similar to meat.[85][146] Cats may reject novel flavors (a response termed neophobia) and learn quickly to avoid foods that have tasted unpleasant in the past.[146] They may also avoid sugary foods and milk. Most adult cats are lactose intolerant; the sugars in milk are not easily digested and may cause soft stools or diarrhea.[146][179] They can also develop odd eating habits. Some cats like to eat or chew on other things, most commonly wool, but also plastic, cables, paper, string, aluminum foil, or even coal. This condition, pica, can threaten their health, depending on the amount and toxicity of the items eaten.[180][181]
Though cats usually prey on animals less than half their size, a feral cat in Australia has been photographed killing an adult pademelon of around the cat's weight at 4 kg (8.8 lb).[182]
Since cats lack sufficient lips to create suction,[183] they use a lapping method with the tongue to draw liquid upwards into their mouths. Lapping at a rate of four times a second, the cat touches the smooth tip of its tongue to the surface of the water, and quickly retracts it like a corkscrew, drawing water upwards.[184]
Running A veterinarian and columnist for Mercola Healthy Pets, Karen Shaw Becker, has compiled a list of the fastest and most athletic cat breeds. First is the Egyptian Mau, which can clock up to 30 miles per hour, faster than any other domestic cat breed in the world.[185][unreliable source] In descending order, Becker lists the other swift domestic cats: the Abyssinian cat, the Somali cat, the Bengal cat, the Savannah cat, the Manx cat ("He can jump and accelerate through the house like there's no tomorrow. Watch for his sharp turns and quick stops – you'll think he's a mini sports car in the shape of a cat."), the Siamese cat, the Ocicat, and the Oriental Shorthair.
The average house cat can outspeed the average house dog (excluding those born to run and race, such as the greyhound and the cheetah), but they excel at sprinting, not at long-distance running.
Play Main article: Cat play and toys File:Play fight between cats.webmhd.webm Play fight between kittens, age 14 weeks Domestic cats, especially young kittens, are known for their love of play. This behavior mimics hunting and is important in helping kittens learn to stalk, capture, and kill prey.[186] Cats also engage in play fighting, with each other and with humans. This behavior may be a way for cats to practice the skills needed for real combat, and might also reduce any fear they associate with launching attacks on other animals.[187]
Owing to the close similarity between play and hunting, cats prefer to play with objects that resemble prey, such as small furry toys that move rapidly, but rapidly lose interest (they become habituated) in a toy they have played with before.[188] Cats also tend to play with toys more when they are hungry.[189] String is often used as a toy, but if it is eaten, it can become caught at the base of the cat's tongue and then move into the intestines, a medical emergency which can cause serious illness, even death.[190] Owing to the risks posed by cats eating string, it is sometimes replaced with a laser pointer's dot, which cats may chase.[191]
Reproduction See also: Kitten
When cats mate, the tomcat (male) bites the scruff of the female's neck as she assumes a position conducive to mating known as lordosis behavior.
Radiography of a pregnant cat (about one month and a half) Female cats are seasonally polyestrous, which means they may have many periods of heat over the course of a year, the season beginning in spring and ending in late autumn. Heat periods occur about every two weeks and last about 4 to 7 days.[192] Multiple males will be attracted to a female in heat. The males will fight over her, and the victor wins the right to mate. At first, the female rejects the male, but eventually the female allows the male to mate. The female utters a loud yowl as the male pulls out of her because a male cat's penis has a band of about 120–150 backwards-pointing penile spines, which are about 1 mm long; upon withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which acts to induce ovulation. This act also occurs to clear the vagina of other sperm in the context of a second (or more) mating, thus giving the later males a larger chance of conception.[193]
After mating, the female washes her vulva thoroughly. If a male attempts to mate with her at this point, the female will attack him. After about 20 to 30 minutes, once the female is finished grooming, the cycle will repeat.[192]
Because ovulation is not always triggered by a single mating, females may not be impregnated by the first male with which they mate.[194] Furthermore, cats are superfecund; that is, a female may mate with more than one male when she is in heat, with the result that different kittens in a litter may have different fathers.[192]
A newborn kitten At 124 hours after conception, the morula forms. At 148 hours, early blastocysts form. At 10–12 days, implantation occurs.[195][196]
The gestation period for cats is between 64 and 67 days, with an average of 66 days.[197] The size of a litter usually is three to five kittens, with the first litter usually smaller than subsequent litters. Kittens are weaned between six and seven weeks old, and cats normally reach sexual maturity at 5–10 months (females) and to 5–7 months (males), although this can vary depending on breed.[192] Females can have two to three litters per year, so may produce up to 150 kittens in their breeding span of around ten years.[192]
Cats are ready to go to new homes at about 12 weeks of age,[198] when they are ready to leave their mother. They can be surgically sterilized (spayed or castrated) as early as 7 weeks to limit unwanted reproduction.[199] This surgery also prevents undesirable sex-related behavior, such as aggression, territory marking (spraying urine) in males and yowling (calling) in females. Traditionally, this surgery was performed at around six to nine months of age, but it is increasingly being performed before puberty, at about three to six months.[200] In the US, about 80% of household cats are neutered.[201]
Ecology Habitats
A cat in snowy weather Cats are a cosmopolitan species and are found across much of the world.[39] Geneticist Stephen James O'Brien, of the National Cancer Institute in Frederick, Maryland, remarked on how successful cats have been in evolutionary terms: "Cats are one of evolution's most charismatic creatures. They can live on the highest mountains and in the hottest deserts."[202] They are extremely adaptable and are now present on all continents except Antarctica, and on 118 of the 131 main groups of islands—even on isolated islands such as the Kerguelen Islands.[203][204]
Feral cats can live in forests, grasslands, tundra, coastal areas, agricultural land, scrublands, urban areas, and wetlands.[205] Their habitats even include small oceanic islands with no human inhabitants.[206] Further, the close relatives of domestic cats, the African wildcat (Felis silvestris lybica) and the Arabian sand cat (Felis margarita) both inhabit desert environments,[29] and domestic cats still show similar adaptations and behaviors.[32] The cat's ability to thrive in almost any terrestrial habitat has led to its designation as one of the world's worst invasive species.[207]
As domestic cats are little altered from wildcats, they can readily interbreed. This hybridization poses a danger to the genetic distinctiveness of some wildcat populations, particularly in Scotland and Hungary and possibly also the Iberian Peninsula.[42]
Feral cats Main article: Feral cat
Feral farm cat Feral cats are domestic cats that were born in or have reverted to a wild state. They are unfamiliar with and wary of humans and roam freely in urban and rural areas.[9] The numbers of feral cats is not known, but estimates of the US feral population range from 25 to 60 million.[9] Feral cats may live alone, but most are found in large colonies, which occupy a specific territory and are usually associated with a source of food.[208] Famous feral cat colonies are found in Rome around the Colosseum and Forum Romanum, with cats at some of these sites being fed and given medical attention by volunteers.[209]
Public attitudes towards feral cats vary widely, ranging from seeing them as free-ranging pets, to regarding them as vermin.[210] One common approach to reducing the feral cat population is termed 'trap-neuter-return', where the cats are trapped, neutered, immunized against diseases such as rabies and the feline Panleukopenia and Leukemia viruses, and then released.[211] Before releasing them back into their feral colonies, the attending veterinarian often nips the tip off one ear to mark it as neutered and inoculated, since these cats may be trapped again. Volunteers continue to feed and give care to these cats throughout their lives. Given this support, their lifespans are increased, and behavior and nuisance problems caused by competition for food are reduced.[208]
Impact on prey species
Carrying half of a rabbit To date, little scientific data is available to assess the impact of cat predation on prey populations outside of agricultural situations. Even well-fed domestic cats may hunt and kill, mainly catching small mammals, but also birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish, and invertebrates.[168][212] Hunting by domestic cats may be contributing to the decline in the numbers of birds in urban areas, although the importance of this effect remains controversial.[213] In the wild, the introduction of feral cats during human settlement can threaten native species with extinction.[206] In many cases, controlling or eliminating the populations of non-native cats can produce a rapid recovery in native animals.[214] However, the ecological role of introduced cats can be more complicated. For example, cats can control the numbers of rats, which also prey on birds' eggs and young, so a cat population can protect an endangered bird species by suppressing mesopredators.[215]
In isolated landmasses, such as Australasia, there are often no other native, medium-sized quadrupedal predators (including other feline species); this tends to exacerbate the impact of feral cats on small native animals.[216] Native species such as the New Zealand kakapo and the Australian bettong, for example, tend to be more ecologically vulnerable and behaviorally "naive", when faced with predation by cats.[217] Feral cats have had a major impact on these native species and have played a leading role in the endangerment and extinction of many animals.[218]
Even in places with ancient and numerous cat populations, such as Western Europe, cats appear to be growing in number and independently of their environments' carrying capacity (such as the numbers of prey available).[219][220] This may be explained, at least in part, by an abundance of food, from sources including feeding by pet owners and scavenging. For instance, research in Britain suggests that a high proportion of cats hunt only "recreationally"[220], and in South Sweden, where research in 1982 found that the population density of cats was as high as 2,000 per square kilometre (5,200/sq mi).[219]
In agricultural settings, cats can be effective at keeping mouse and rat populations low, but only if rodent harborage locations are kept under control.[221][222] While cats are effective at preventing rodent population explosions, they are not effective for eliminating pre-existing severe infestations.[223]
Impact on birds
A black cat eating a house sparrow The domestic cat is a significant predator of birds. UK assessments indicate they may be accountable for an estimated 64.8 million bird deaths each year.[168] A 2012 study suggests feral cats may kill several billion birds each year in the United States.[224] Certain species appear more susceptible than others; for example, 30% of house sparrow mortality is linked to the domestic cat.[225] In the recovery of ringed robins (Erithacus rubecula) and dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 31% of deaths were a result of cat predation.[226] In parts of North America, the presence of larger carnivores such as coyotes which prey on cats and other small predators reduces the effect of predation by cats and other small predators such as opossums and raccoons on bird numbers and variety.[227] The proposal that cat populations will increase when the numbers of these top predators decline is called the mesopredator release hypothesis.
On islands, birds can contribute as much as 60% of a cat's diet.[228] In nearly all cases, however, the cat cannot be identified as the sole cause for reducing the numbers of island birds, and in some instances, eradication of cats has caused a 'mesopredator release' effect;[229] where the suppression of top carnivores creates an abundance of smaller predators that cause a severe decline in their shared prey. Domestic cats are, however, known to be a contributing factor to the decline of many species, a factor that has ultimately led, in some cases, to extinction. The South Island piopio, Chatham rail,[226] the New Zealand merganser,[230] and the common diving petrel[231] are a few from a long list, with the most extreme case being the flightless Lyall's wren, which was driven to extinction only a few years after its discovery.[232][233]
Some of the same factors that have promoted adaptive radiation of island avifauna over evolutionary time appear to promote vulnerability to non-native species in modern time. The susceptibility of many island birds is undoubtedly due to evolution in the absence of mainland predators, competitors, diseases, and parasites, in addition to lower reproductive rates and extended incubation periods.[234] The loss of flight, or reduced flying ability is also characteristic of many island endemics.[235] These biological aspects have increased vulnerability to extinction in the presence of introduced species, such as the domestic cat.[236] Equally, behavioral traits exhibited by island species, such as "predatory naivety"[237] and ground-nesting,[234] have also contributed to their susceptibility.
Interaction with humans Main article: Human interaction with cats
Cats and people Cats are common pets throughout the world, and their worldwide population exceeds 500 million.[13] Although cat guardianship has commonly been associated with women,[238] a 2007 Gallup poll reported that men and women in the United States of America were equally likely to own a cat.[239]
As well as being kept as pets, cats are also used in the international fur[240] and leather industries for making coats, hats, blankets, and stuffed toys;[241] and shoes, gloves, and musical instruments respectively[242] (about 24 cats are needed to make a cat-fur coat).[243] This use has been outlawed in the United States, Australia, and the European Union.[244] Cat pelts have been used for superstitious purposes as part of the practise of witchcraft,[245] and are still made into blankets in Switzerland as folk remedies believed to help rheumatism.[246] In the Western intellectual tradition, the idea of cats as everyday objects have served to illustrate problems of quantum mechanics in the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment.
A few attempts to build a cat census have been made over the years, both through associations or national and international organizations (such as the Canadian Federation of Humane Societies's one[247]) and over the Internet,[248][249] but such a task does not seem simple to achieve. General estimates for the global population of domestic cats range widely from anywhere between 200 million to 600 million.[250][251][252][253][254][255]
Cat show Main article: Cat show A cat show is a judged event where the owners of cats compete to win titles in various cat registering organizations by entering their cats to be judged after a breed standard.[256][257] Both pedigreed and companion (or moggy) cats are admissible, although the rules differ from organization to organization. Cats are compared to a breed standard,[258] and the owners of those judged to be closest to it are awarded a prize. Moggies are judged based on their temperament. Often, at the end of the year, all of the points accrued at various shows are added up and more national and regional titles are awarded.
Cat café Main article: Cat café A cat café is a theme café whose attraction is cats that can be watched and played with.[259] Patrons pay a cover fee, generally hourly and thus cat cafés can be seen as a form of supervised indoor pet rental.
Ailurophobia Main article: Ailurophobia Ailurophobia is a human phobia of cats; however, the term is often associated with humans that have a hatred of cats.[260]
Cat bites Main article: Cat bite Cats may bite humans when provoked, during play or when aggressive. Complications from cat bites can develop.[261] A cat bite differs from the bites of other pets. This is because the teeth of a cat are sharp and pointed causing deep punctures. Skin usually closes rapidly over the bite and traps microorganisms that cause infection.[262][261]
Infections transmitted from cats to humans Main article: Feline zoonosis Cats can be infected or infested with viruses, bacteria, fungus, protozoans, arthropods or worms that can transmit diseases to humans.[263] In some cases, the cat exhibits no symptoms of the disease,[264] However, the same disease can then become evident in a human. The likelihood that a person will become diseased depends on the age and immune status of the person. Humans who have cats living in their home or in close association are more likely to become infected, however, those who do not keep cats as pets might also acquire infections from cat feces and parasites exiting the cat's body.[263][265] Some of the infections of most concern include salmonella, cat scratch disease and toxoplasmosis.[264]
History and mythology Main articles: Cultural depictions of cats and Cats in ancient Egypt
The ancient Egyptians mummified dead cats out of respect in the same way that they mummified people.[266]
Ancient Roman mosaic of a cat killing a partridge from the House of the Faun in Pompeii
A 19th-century drawing of a tabby cat Traditionally, historians tended to think ancient Egypt was the site of cat domestication, owing to the clear depictions of house cats in Egyptian paintings about 3,600 years old.[29] However, in 2004, a Neolithic grave excavated in Shillourokambos, Cyprus, contained the skeletons, laid close to one another, of both a human and a cat. The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, pushing back the earliest known feline–human association significantly.[16][267][268] The cat specimen is large and closely resembles the African wildcat, rather than present-day domestic cats. This discovery, combined with genetic studies, suggests cats were probably domesticated in the Middle East, in the Fertile Crescent around the time of the development of agriculture, and then were brought to Cyprus and Egypt.[15][20] Direct evidence for the domestication of cats 5,300 years ago in Quanhucun, China has been published by archaeologists and paleontologists from the University of Washington and Chinese Academy of Sciences. The cats are believed to have been attracted to the village by rodents, which in turn were attracted by grain cultivated and stored by humans.[269]
In ancient Egypt, cats were sacred animals, with the goddess Bastet often depicted in cat form, sometimes taking on the war-like aspect of a lioness.[270]:220 Killing a cat was absolutely forbidden[266] and the Greek historian Herodotus reports that, whenever a household cat died, the entire family would mourn and shave their eyebrows.[266] Families took their dead cats to the sacred city of Bubastis,[266] where they were embalmed and buried in sacred repositories.[266] Domestic cats were probably first introduced to Greece and southern Italy in the fifth century BC by the Phoenicians.[271] The earliest unmistakable evidence of the Greeks having domestic cats comes from two coins from Magna Graecia dating to the mid-fifth century BC showing Iokastos and Phalanthos, the legendary founders of Rhegion and Taras respectively, playing with their pet cats.[272]:57–58[273]
Housecats seem to have been extremely rare among the ancient Greeks and Romans;[273] Herodotus expressed astonishment at the domestic cats in Egypt, because he had only ever seen wildcats.[273] Even during later times, weasels were far more commonly kept as pets[273] and weasels, not cats, were seen as the ideal rodent-killers.[273] The usual ancient Greek word for "cat" was ailouros, meaning "thing with the waving tail",[272]:57[273] but this word could also be applied to any of the "various long-tailed carnivores kept for catching mice".[273] Cats are rarely mentioned in ancient Greek literature,[273] but Aristotle does remark in his History of Animals that "female cats are naturally lecherous."[272]:74[273] The Greeks later syncretized their own goddess Artemis with the Egyptian goddess Bastet, adopting Bastet's associations with cats and ascribing them to Artemis.[272]:77–79 In Ovid's Metamorphoses, when the gods flee to Egypt and take animal forms, the goddess Diana (the Roman equivalent of Artemis) turns into a cat.[272]:79 Cats eventually displaced ferrets as the pest control of choice because they were more pleasant to have around the house and were more enthusiastic hunters of mice.[274] During the Middle Ages, many of Artemis's associations with cats were grafted onto the Virgin Mary.[274] Cats are often shown in icons of Annunciation and of the Holy Family[274] and, according to Italian folklore, on the same night that Mary gave birth to Jesus, a virgin cat in Bethlehem gave birth to a kitten.[274] Domestic cats were spread throughout much of the rest of the world during the Age of Discovery, as ships' cats were carried on sailing ships to control shipboard rodents and as good-luck charms.[270]:223
Several ancient religions believed cats are exalted souls, companions or guides for humans, that are all-knowing but mute so they cannot influence decisions made by humans. In Japan, the maneki neko cat is a symbol of good fortune.[275] In Norse mythology, Freyja, the goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, is depicted as riding a chariot drawn by cats.[276] In Jewish legend, the first cat was living in the house of the first man Adam as a pet that got rid of mice.[277] The cat was once partnering with the first dog before the latter broke an oath they had made which resulted in enmity between the descendants of these two animals.[277] It is also written that neither cats nor foxes are represented in the water, while every other animal has an incarnation species in the water.[277] Although no species are sacred in Islam, cats are revered by Muslims. Some Western writers have stated Muhammad had a favorite cat, Muezza.[278] He is reported to have loved cats so much, "he would do without his cloak rather than disturb one that was sleeping on it".[279] The story has no origin in early Muslim writers, and seems to confuse a story of a later Sufi saint, Ahmed ar-Rifa'i, centuries after Muhammad.[280] One of the companions of Muhammad was known as "Abu Hurayrah" (Father of the Kitten), in reference to his documented affection to cats.[281]
Superstitions and cat burning
Some cultures are superstitious about black cats, ascribing either good or bad luck to them. Many cultures have negative superstitions about cats. An example would be the belief that a black cat "crossing one's path" leads to bad luck, or that cats are witches' familiars used to augment a witch's powers and skills. The killing of cats in Medieval Ypres, Belgium, is commemorated in the innocuous present-day Kattenstoet (cat parade).[282] In medieval France, cats would be burnt alive as a form of entertainment. According to Norman Davies, the assembled people "shrieked with laughter as the animals, howling with pain, were singed, roasted, and finally carbonized".[283]
"It was the custom to burn a basket, barrel, or sack full of live cats, which was hung from a tall mast in the midst of the bonfire; sometimes a fox was burned. The people collected the embers and ashes of the fire and took them home, believing that they brought good luck. The French kings often witnessed these spectacles and even lit the bonfire with their own hands. In 1648 Louis XIV, crowned with a wreath of roses and carrying a bunch of roses in his hand, kindled the fire, danced at it and partook of the banquet afterwards in the town hall. But this was the last occasion when a monarch presided at the midsummer bonfire in Paris. At Metz midsummer fires were lighted with great pomp on the esplanade, and a dozen cats, enclosed in wicker cages, were burned alive in them, to the amusement of the people. Similarly at Gap, in the department of the Hautes-Alpes, cats used to be roasted over the midsummer bonfire."[284]
According to a myth in many cultures, cats have multiple lives. In many countries, they are believed to have nine lives, but in Italy, Germany, Greece, Brazil and some Spanish-speaking regions, they are said to have seven lives,[285][286] while in Turkish and Arabic traditions, the number of lives is six.[287] The myth is attributed to the natural suppleness and swiftness cats exhibit to escape life-threatening situations. Also lending credence to this myth is the fact that falling cats often land on their feet, using an instinctive righting reflex to twist their bodies around. Nonetheless, cats can still be injured or killed by a high fall.[288]
See also
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J.; Veitch, D.; Uerta, N.; Wood, B.; Alonso, J. (2004). "A Review of Feral Cat Eradication on Islands". Conservation Biology. 18 (2): 310–319. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00442.x. hdl:10261/22249. Invasive Species Specialist Group (2000). "100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species: A Selection from the Global Invasive Species Database" (PDF). IUCN Species Survival Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2009. "What is the difference between a stray cat and a feral cat?". Humane Society of the United States. Archived from the original on 1 May 2008. "Torre Argentina cat shelter". Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009. Rowan, Andrew N.; Salem, Deborah J. (November 2003). "4". The State of the Animals II: 2003 (PDF). Humane Society of the United States. ISBN 0-9658942-7-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 November 2006. "2013 AAFP Feline Vaccination Advisory Panel Report" (PDF). 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Rogers, Katherine M. (2006). Cat. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 18–20. ISBN 978-1-86189-292-8. Beadle, Muriel (1977). Cat. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 76. ISBN 978-0671224516. Pate, Alan (2008). "Maneki Neko: Feline Fact & Fiction". Daruma Magazine. Amagasaki, Japan: Takeguchi Momoko. Archived from the original on 30 December 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2012. Faulkes, Anthony (1995). Edda. p. 24. ISBN 0-460-87616-3. Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews, Vol. I: The Sixth Day (PDF). Translated by Szold, Henrietta. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. Geyer, Georgie Anne (2004). When Cats Reigned Like Kings: On the Trail of the Sacred Cats. Kansas City, Missouri: Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 0-7407-4697-9. Reeves, Minou (2000). Muhammad in Europe. New York University Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8147-7533-0. Al-Thahabi, Shamsuddin. "Biography of al-Rifai". سير أعلام النبلاء (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 25 October 2014. Retrieved 11 November 2014. 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submitted by Chtorrr to Chtorrr [link] [comments]


2018.06.07 00:01 subreddit_stats Subreddit Stats: GenderCritical top posts from 2017-06-05 to 2018-06-04 17:16 PDT

Period: 363.81 days
Submissions Comments
Total 1000 55898
Rate (per day) 2.75 152.75
Unique Redditors 413 3355
Combined Score 138929 1037724

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 24640 points, 143 submissions: scienceisarealthing
    1. On the state of feminism in 2018 (477 points, 30 comments)
    2. Janelle Monáe labelled problematic for daring to spread positivity about vaginas (404 points, 89 comments)
    3. A former stripper on how liberal/ leftist men want "enthusiastic consent" (401 points, 88 comments)
    4. The Onion dishing out some radical feminism 101! (400 points, 19 comments)
    5. "When I hear how 'sex work is women's rights,' that's pimp shit." (390 points, 117 comments)
    6. Sex industry survivor Rachel Moran destroys libfem hypocrisy (363 points, 95 comments)
    7. "you left out penises and testicles on the female genitalia" (340 points, 69 comments)
    8. "Shut up and listen to transwomen!!" (322 points, 42 comments)
    9. "Contraception, abortion, and any other issues related to pregnancy and childbirth are not 'women's issues.'" (321 points, 13 comments)
    10. Why are men so slutty nowadays? (313 points, 35 comments)
  2. 3522 points, 25 submissions: foolishtimbit
    1. Telling women not to weamake art of female anatomy because “trans women don’t have vaginas” is like telling a UNI student not to wear a sweatshirt with their school’s logo on it because “some people don’t go to that school”. (271 points, 47 comments)
    2. Why do transgender people always say “I was assigned female/male at birth”, like you weren’t “Assigned” anything. The doctor looked at your genitals and determined which SEX you are. (238 points, 74 comments)
    3. Curb Your Women’s March (219 points, 52 comments)
    4. The self objectification of female pop starts (218 points, 15 comments)
    5. Pretty Much (204 points, 10 comments)
    6. Anyways could kweer™️ activists please stop giving transwomen all the credit for LGBT rights? (164 points, 51 comments)
    7. Not to sound mean but I couldn’t care less about those women who are happy go lucky sex workers (162 points, 57 comments)
    8. These people think they’re slick gaslighting us. (159 points, 62 comments)
    9. (Liberal) Feminists really need to stop overusing the word “Empowering” (142 points, 56 comments)
    10. Liberal Feminists: “We need to SUPPORT sex workers™️ uwu!!!” Sex Worker: “I was traumatized and abused by the sex industry.” Liberal Feminists: “Stay away from me u evil #SWERF!! >:(“ (132 points, 6 comments)
  3. 3485 points, 30 submissions: FeminamRadicalis
    1. Trans activism is excusing & advocating violence against women, and it’s time to speak up Meghan Murphy (178 points, 11 comments)
    2. "If trans activists truly cared about feminism, they would respect women's spaces" by Meghan Murphy (151 points, 20 comments)
    3. Masked transactivists tried to violently force their way into JamJarBristol to shut down the #WeNeedToTalk event. Magdalen Berns (150 points, 52 comments)
    4. Mumsnet is organizing a boycott of Marks & Spencer because they allow males in the female changing rooms (142 points, 29 comments)
    5. Four Black lesbians were killed in one week, and the media still isn't paying attention (137 points, 37 comments)
    6. Coming out as a radical feminist is like living in the Handmaid's Tale and trying to figure out who else is in the resistance. (136 points, 129 comments)
    7. Why is [liberal] feminism so quiet about Muslim women who refuse to wear the hijab? (130 points, 229 comments)
    8. Contestants for Miss Peru 2018 Turned the Pageant Into a Protest Against Femicide (129 points, 16 comments)
    9. TERF Wars (124 points, 24 comments)
    10. Porn Has Fueled A 400% Rise In Child-On-Child Assaults In the UK (118 points, 64 comments)
  4. 2438 points, 14 submissions: sharky024
    1. India Rules Sex With a Child Bride Is Always Rape in a Massive Win for Girls’ Rights (495 points, 26 comments)
    2. Have anyone noticed how trans women make the news for succeeding in politics, business, and sports, while trans men make the news for... having babies? (259 points, 19 comments)
    3. Name the problem. (210 points, 34 comments)
    4. Men KNOW (190 points, 38 comments)
    5. Was Marx a terf? (176 points, 24 comments)
    6. A helpful chart for those that equate radfems to conservatives. (167 points, 138 comments)
    7. The message that students being kind and hanging out with the loner could have stopped a mass shooting is DANGEROUS (153 points, 59 comments)
    8. Study finds incidents of voyeurism at Target nearly tripled since imposure of "inclusive" bathroom policies (148 points, 41 comments)
    9. US trans homicide rates LOWER than non-trans population: peer reviewed study (128 points, 33 comments)
    10. We need real feminism back! (121 points, 22 comments)
  5. 1738 points, 14 submissions: LilianH
    1. The Left Are Abandoning Women; and in Doing So, Abandoning Everything They Stand For (167 points, 82 comments)
    2. Don’t you just love it when a man explains to you what it means to be a woman? (160 points, 34 comments)
    3. Trans group asking Ireland's "Together For Yes" campaign to apologise for being "exclusionary" (155 points, 161 comments)
    4. Violent misogyny is unfortunately not confined to the internet’s ‘incels’ (142 points, 37 comments)
    5. Topless swimmer wades into trans row (138 points, 50 comments)
    6. Meet the man standing to be a Labour party women’s officer (123 points, 49 comments)
    7. Mexico state introduces gender parity law, 19 men identify as women to take women's places (123 points, 19 comments)
    8. The demonisation of Mumsnet is just the latest incarnation of witch-hunting (113 points, 21 comments)
    9. There is only one protected class of women and it is… men (113 points, 41 comments)
    10. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie: ‘This could be the beginning of a revolution’ (108 points, 29 comments)
  6. 1713 points, 11 submissions: MossWolf
    1. I made us our very own radfem personality meme! (278 points, 132 comments)
    2. Fuck off, it's not our job to fix your problems. (250 points, 89 comments)
    3. The intense value of "old" (177 points, 73 comments)
    4. A Mom Got Sick Of Seeing Short-Shorts For Girls, So She Started Her Own Line (174 points, 91 comments)
    5. The encroachment upon female autistic spaces. (137 points, 81 comments)
    6. Came across this extremely faulty TRA comic, decided to make my own version. (125 points, 35 comments)
    7. Old men who vie for the attention of young women (124 points, 112 comments)
    8. Brain Tumors (118 points, 44 comments)
    9. Appropriation and transgenderism (117 points, 173 comments)
    10. TiM ironically complains, as a male, that when swiping through wlw tinder, half the results are of other men. (111 points, 87 comments)
  7. 1604 points, 11 submissions: heidischallenge
    1. Excellent Andrea Dworkin quote - advice to male allies (226 points, 36 comments)
    2. This is not meant as a litmus test, but it’s quite clear what a feminist is (187 points, 66 comments)
    3. Be Feminine, They Said (169 points, 9 comments)
    4. Men's rights activist joke (169 points, 63 comments)
    5. Sad state of affairs (169 points, 17 comments)
    6. Halloween quote - Andrea Dworkin (129 points, 26 comments)
    7. How much things can change (128 points, 30 comments)
    8. Update on the Speaker's Corner assault (125 points, 18 comments)
    9. ARE TRANSWOMEN WOMEN? A Battle to the Death Between Rya Jones and Miranda Yardley (111 points, 52 comments)
    10. No, Teen Vogue, the backlash to your anal sex article was not rooted in homophobia (97 points, 119 comments)
  8. 1445 points, 11 submissions: TossingLobster
    1. Misogyny and school shootings (262 points, 65 comments)
    2. "Truly a magnificent specimen" (171 points, 16 comments)
    3. Important distinctions (151 points, 171 comments)
    4. "We bought the land" - A win for women everywhere (114 points, 21 comments)
    5. Pregnant woman exisiting causes epic mantrum (114 points, 65 comments)
    6. "There was a young woman who swallowed a lie..." (112 points, 10 comments)
    7. Professor of physiology says transgender athletes have advantage in speed, power (110 points, 18 comments)
    8. Social Conformity and Trans Activism (109 points, 46 comments)
    9. "The Cotton Friend Zone" (105 points, 43 comments)
    10. Stop pandering to the minuscule transgender lobby (103 points, 49 comments)
  9. 1377 points, 8 submissions: TheBioWoman
    1. I knew we'd get a story like this soon -> "Why This Trans Woman Can't Identify With The Handmaid's Tale" -- The Advocate (344 points, 219 comments)
    2. I was physically assaulted by a pre-everything MTF for refusing sex/intimacy in 2014 (209 points, 42 comments)
    3. I bought a "The Future is Female" shirt to piss off libfems and it worked (204 points, 112 comments)
    4. Did You Know It's Lesbian Visibility Day? (160 points, 47 comments)
    5. Being Called a TERF Brought Me to Radical Feminism (137 points, 40 comments)
    6. Rad Fem Rhetoric Spotted in Lib Fem Hipster Coffee Shop. Dun Dun Dun! (123 points, 18 comments)
    7. I Just Love Women So Much (105 points, 19 comments)
    8. Impossible to get away from TiMs on Dating Apps "HER" and "OKCupid" (95 points, 74 comments)
  10. 1197 points, 9 submissions: closetedxxcishet
    1. Transjacking (173 points, 77 comments)
    2. Common Trans Paradoxes (167 points, 70 comments)
    3. Lulz "demisexual" (156 points, 119 comments)
    4. I don't want cock in my face at the spa. That doesn't make me a bad person. (153 points, 47 comments)
    5. Sorry, “AFAB nonbinaries,” but it doesn’t work that way (139 points, 59 comments)
    6. Sorry, trans people, it turns out you’re not the biggest victims in the whole universe (123 points, 47 comments)
    7. Spa upholds no dong policy (98 points, 20 comments)
    8. You all save me every day (95 points, 25 comments)
    9. Can we talk about "whorephobia?" (93 points, 77 comments)
  11. 1159 points, 8 submissions: Kluannoa
    1. Let's give some more specific attention to the phenomenon of women and girls thinking that they're asexual when they're not, as they're just so repulsed by porn culture (308 points, 135 comments)
    2. Just a small realization: men's magazines tell men what to expect, women's magazines tell their readers how to meet these expectations. (157 points, 16 comments)
    3. Women's thoughts are lost in niceness. As long as we're so scared of offending men, our thoughts can't fully form. (155 points, 65 comments)
    4. Another porn harm: the breakdown of healthy sexual boundaries, the normalization of incest (126 points, 61 comments)
    5. Does anyone else feel that with the transgender subject, we're actually talking about several pretty different subjects, while still using the same word, making it all very confusing and unclear? (113 points, 37 comments)
    6. I suddenly really realize just how bad the word ''slutshaming'' is. (106 points, 43 comments)
    7. Male privilege is being blissfully naive (104 points, 27 comments)
    8. Why we need a new feminist wave, focusing wholly on elevating women, as recent events showed just how powerless we really still are (90 points, 46 comments)
  12. 1135 points, 8 submissions: Wanderer9717
    1. Seven-year-old girl likes football and wearing "boys'" clothes but is "proud to be a girl" (273 points, 43 comments)
    2. I won't be referred to as 'non-male' by the Green Party while women still suffer prejudice because of our female bodies (154 points, 32 comments)
    3. What's the difference between an MRA and a TRA? (139 points, 14 comments)
    4. Students at "right-on" Oxford University college vote against gender neutral toilets due to concerns about harassment of female students (129 points, 19 comments)
    5. A psychologist at the only NHS gender clinic for children in England says some may be making choices they could regret (117 points, 29 comments)
    6. The Family Featured in the NYT Article About Queer Families Looks Awfully Straight (116 points, 151 comments)
    7. Mumsnet founder Justine Roberts: Transgender activists try to curb free speech on site (107 points, 24 comments)
    8. The Degenderettes – Feminist Heretic (100 points, 17 comments)
  13. 1097 points, 5 submissions: gendercriticalradfem
    1. A transgender four year old is like a vegan cat... (574 points, 171 comments)
    2. The Many Times Hugh Hefner's Playboy Comics Made Rape A Punchline (150 points, 23 comments)
    3. Magdalen Berns Discusses How Trans Ideology Reinforces Sexist Workplace Dress Codes At The Expense of Women (144 points, 66 comments)
    4. Las Vegas Shooter An Abusive Creep: Frequently Berated Girlfriend In Public (Is Anyone Actually Surprised Anymore When Mass-Murderers Shown To Be Misogynists?) (132 points, 115 comments)
    5. Teen Who Previously Inspired Girls To Join STEM Transitions Because She Didn't Like Her "Long Curls", "Squeaky Voice", Or "Wearing A Dress" (97 points, 79 comments)
  14. 1022 points, 9 submissions: LittleOwl12
    1. "Because not everybody has a pink pussy......" (135 points, 31 comments)
    2. How come only feminism has to be intersectional? (129 points, 42 comments)
    3. The "passing" argument. (128 points, 219 comments)
    4. When your men shock you (128 points, 53 comments)
    5. No, Tampax, this is not a good idea. Please. No. (108 points, 192 comments)
    6. Nazis are running people over in Virginia but my FB is all about TERFs. (104 points, 35 comments)
    7. Well maybe you DON'T understand lesbians then. (102 points, 52 comments)
    8. Thoughts on tomboys and MTT envy (99 points, 19 comments)
    9. "Where Are The Feminists On This? HUNH? HUNH?" (89 points, 37 comments)
  15. 1022 points, 8 submissions: BigEarthBear
    1. I am Frustrated on the brink of tears and I need to vent. LESBIAN ERASURE IS FREAKING REAL YOU TRANS F**k.... good god. (187 points, 92 comments)
    2. Rya on HIS gender identity. He talked with total clarity and I am not misgendering him. (136 points, 59 comments)
    3. Our sexual orientation is not a "preference" (126 points, 24 comments)
    4. "Two Holes" (123 points, 73 comments)
    5. I am utterly disgusted with social media. (123 points, 50 comments)
    6. Just read E-Mails that have me really upset. Trans Activists are crap ally's (120 points, 37 comments)
    7. Transgender Activists and their Anti-Womyn Cis Homophobia (116 points, 59 comments)
    8. Gender Pronoun Rant (91 points, 67 comments)
  16. 1015 points, 8 submissions: cherieblosum
    1. Gender and sexuality rant (199 points, 73 comments)
    2. "Vagina Monologues" at my alma mater (a women's college) (162 points, 72 comments)
    3. This ad I saw on Facebook recruiting for a focus group... (140 points, 75 comments)
    4. My date with a self proclaimed "male feminist" (108 points, 160 comments)
    5. Study finds female college graduates newly on the job market are punished for having good grades (106 points, 27 comments)
    6. Hypocrisy in psychiatry regarding "gender dysphoria" (103 points, 37 comments)
    7. We're being brigaded (102 points, 164 comments)
    8. Girl's bf excuses himself in the middle of a family gathering to watch porn and masturbate. Family accidentally catches him. Porn sick redditors come to his rescue. (95 points, 54 comments)
  17. 1013 points, 9 submissions: gender_is_oppression
    1. Why GenderCritical Needs to Exist (145 points, 58 comments)
    2. If you use the word b*tch when criticizing a woman, I don't trust you. (131 points, 114 comments)
    3. Prostitution is not a job. The inside of a woman’s body is not a workplace Julie Bindel (130 points, 20 comments)
    4. The future is...gender stereotypes and commercialized rape. How inspiring. (130 points, 77 comments)
    5. "Angel, now 26, is focused on using her voice to help end child marriage - and inspire those women still trapped in marriages to leave." (102 points, 5 comments)
    6. "The only thing that is different between biological women and us is the ability to reproduce." (97 points, 35 comments)
    7. If transwomen have never had male privilege, then systemic sexism is a lie. (93 points, 18 comments)
    8. The irony of straight women identifying as nonbinary to be edgy... (93 points, 35 comments)
    9. "I bind because it makes me feel safer when I'm outside." (92 points, 71 comments)
  18. 939 points, 8 submissions: throwaway949508
    1. Why is legality the bar for the majority of men? (163 points, 124 comments)
    2. (Tumblr Post) "If you scooped my brain out of my head and filled my skull with foam packing peanuts, the brainless husk of my dead body would still be female." (143 points, 36 comments)
    3. Misogyny, male supremacy, and porn create serial killers and mass murderers. But why isn't this acknowledged? (118 points, 18 comments)
    4. AskWomen's Inclusivity Rule is an eyeroll (112 points, 38 comments)
    5. Neutral Politics asks if prostitution should be criminalized, legalized, or decriminalized in the West. Some male commenters fear that men will kill themselves without a disposable lower female caste to sexually exploit, stating "this isn't just about women's rights, it's about human survival". (110 points, 75 comments)
    6. Seattle’s new tiny house village for the homeless — women only (102 points, 52 comments)
    7. In 2013 Redskins Cheerleaders had their passports taken, were pressured to pose for a nude photo shoot, and then 9 of which were forced to be escorts for the night. (99 points, 17 comments)
    8. Banned from AskFeminists and muted for 72 hours. (92 points, 51 comments)
  19. 931 points, 7 submissions: Carthimundia
    1. Apparently I'm trans because I don't have gendered thoughts. (197 points, 115 comments)
    2. A conversation with a trans-activist male friend (141 points, 59 comments)
    3. A top academic philosophy blogs asks "why aren't more philosophers discussing the philosophical issues raised by the claim of transgender women to be women"? (139 points, 21 comments)
    4. Charles Clymer, "male feminist", now Charlotte Clymer. Some thoughts. (132 points, 57 comments)
    5. UK talk radio: Lily Madigan hopelessly out of depth debating gender self-ID (117 points, 53 comments)
    6. In the Guardian today- man proudly describes how he likes wearing women’s underwear and freaking out sales staff (111 points, 45 comments)
    7. Cambridge Analytica, Steve Bannon, and liberal feminism:I just had a chilling thought (94 points, 100 comments)
  20. 867 points, 7 submissions: trw365
    1. Irish Times exit poll projects Ireland has voted by landslide to repeal Eighth Amendment (199 points, 42 comments)
    2. Trans prisoner on hunger strike for straighteners but the press omit what they were actually sentenced for (139 points, 46 comments)
    3. Guardian article discussing TERF as a means to silence debate (135 points, 27 comments)
    4. Unfortunate health update from Magdalen Berns (110 points, 34 comments)
    5. Porn Actors Leigh Raven and Riley Nixon Allege Abuse, Violence, and Boundary Violation on Set (103 points, 66 comments)
    6. The Times: Terrified patient treated like ‘transphobic bigot' (91 points, 35 comments)
    7. Male students in Oxford stage dirty protest over losing their urinals as toliets were turned gender neutral (90 points, 48 comments)
  21. 829 points, 8 submissions: hardcarrytin
    1. Wow, this sub is really growing. (117 points, 55 comments)
    2. "Everything is sexual harassment nowadays!" (115 points, 39 comments)
    3. Men are rarely accused of provoking women. (106 points, 28 comments)
    4. Does anyone else hate social media? (104 points, 64 comments)
    5. Why is it that when it comes to equality, men are the default? (101 points, 33 comments)
    6. Let's spread the story of Junko Furuta (100 points, 53 comments)
    7. "Does that mean I can hit women now?" (93 points, 95 comments)
    8. "Why aren't you begging?" (93 points, 43 comments)
  22. 818 points, 7 submissions: InstantCoffee_
    1. Just a reminder to all lesbians here (181 points, 43 comments)
    2. I got called a man hater today by my LibFem classmate (131 points, 76 comments)
    3. A theory on why men only care about a woman if she is someones daughter, mother or sister but not someone (106 points, 46 comments)
    4. I Chose Radical Feminism Over My Porn Using Boyfriend (105 points, 45 comments)
    5. I just realised this about porn... (104 points, 62 comments)
    6. Stormé DeLarverie, the butch lesbian who started the Stonewall Revolution (100 points, 5 comments)
    7. To the anonymous sister who told me about radical feminism one year ago (91 points, 7 comments)
  23. 770 points, 6 submissions: NPerez99
    1. "Rose McGowan deserves our support. It is the man who verbally attacked her who should be condemned. If you can't see this as an overt attempt to derail the women's movement you are blind." Meghan Murphy (240 points, 51 comments)
    2. "Ginuwine Refused To Kiss A Trans Woman On Live TV And Now The Internet Is At War" (Celeb gossip, I guess this is the hill trans activism will die on) (115 points, 76 comments)
    3. Miranda Yardley in the Sun: Gender-neutral changing rooms aren't safe — they just appease the trans lobby (114 points, 17 comments)
    4. @Shethinx Instagram account tries to rename women into menstruators gets pushback from a 12 year old (107 points, 47 comments)
    5. Everyday Feminism tries to push the Riley's "your dating prefs are prejudice" again, only to be met with a wall of angry comments from men & women. <3 (100 points, 52 comments)
    6. PYNK - (I couldn't wait until Friday to share) (94 points, 70 comments)
  24. 744 points, 5 submissions: notthistimebuddy
    1. Freedom for everyone but women (200 points, 93 comments)
    2. Men don’t feel like women (199 points, 56 comments)
    3. Men are entitled pricks because media makes women look more desperate than we are (138 points, 62 comments)
    4. Men have convinced society that man brain makes them promiscuous (105 points, 114 comments)
    5. man shows up to women only pool looking exactly like a man but claiming to be a woman, was asked to leave. Naturally trans rage storm proceeds. (102 points, 51 comments)
  25. 730 points, 4 submissions: Oneforgh0st
    1. Men are more angered by women being obnoxious than men being violent (248 points, 83 comments)
    2. Apparently it's misandry to acknowledge that 98% of mass shooters are male (200 points, 109 comments)
    3. In another women's sub, a male rape victim's post is favored over the plethora of those made by women... (148 points, 64 comments)
    4. Bitter men on women's subs: why? (134 points, 135 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. Black_Phillipa (11811 points, 382 comments)
  2. Carthimundia (8950 points, 336 comments)
  3. BoozeBabe (8296 points, 339 comments)
  4. heidischallenge (8129 points, 412 comments)
  5. 4eyedPurplePPLeater (8012 points, 507 comments)
  6. TossingLobster (7981 points, 209 comments)
  7. totalrando9 (7962 points, 379 comments)
  8. Hiyoheythere (7950 points, 261 comments)
  9. afistfulofyen (7934 points, 421 comments)
  10. angrytardis (7903 points, 360 comments)
  11. Caranda23 (7535 points, 423 comments)
  12. girl_undone (7284 points, 340 comments)
  13. vulvapeople (6906 points, 333 comments)
  14. eternallyfemale (6395 points, 328 comments)
  15. DimDroog (6014 points, 311 comments)
  16. hardy_and_free (5824 points, 347 comments)
  17. notthistimebuddy (5820 points, 193 comments)
  18. TruExcellentRadFem (5692 points, 197 comments)
  19. BigEarthBear (5327 points, 306 comments)
  20. cherieblosum (5282 points, 160 comments)
  21. Ergative_Absolutive (5265 points, 157 comments)
  22. MossWolf (5229 points, 235 comments)
  23. yishengqingwa666 (5185 points, 464 comments)
  24. susannunes (5058 points, 309 comments)
  25. Dahna_Mahna (4940 points, 301 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. A transgender four year old is like a vegan cat... by gendercriticalradfem (574 points, 171 comments)
  2. India Rules Sex With a Child Bride Is Always Rape in a Massive Win for Girls’ Rights by sharky024 (495 points, 26 comments)
  3. On the state of feminism in 2018 by scienceisarealthing (477 points, 30 comments)
  4. Someone on FB shared this, 200+ comments tearing her to shreds 🤷🏻‍♀️🤦🏻‍♀️ by wrapunzel (448 points, 46 comments)
  5. Janelle Monáe labelled problematic for daring to spread positivity about vaginas by scienceisarealthing (404 points, 89 comments)
  6. A former stripper on how liberal/ leftist men want "enthusiastic consent" by scienceisarealthing (401 points, 88 comments)
  7. The Onion dishing out some radical feminism 101! by scienceisarealthing (400 points, 19 comments)
  8. "When I hear how 'sex work is women's rights,' that's pimp shit." by scienceisarealthing (390 points, 117 comments)
  9. Attending a birth this morning has cemented my radical feminism forever. by furious_doog (366 points, 41 comments)
  10. Sex industry survivor Rachel Moran destroys libfem hypocrisy by scienceisarealthing (363 points, 95 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 389 points: glazedhamster's comment in I knew we'd get a story like this soon -> "Why This Trans Woman Can't Identify With The Handmaid's Tale" -- The Advocate
  2. 295 points: jessieware91's comment in Transwoman feels "less valid" after seeing women posting #metoo on social media
  3. 292 points: iheartmanhating's comment in So, the pussy hats are violent & offensive, but a penis hat at the Women's March isn't? 🤔
  4. 265 points: jetpackbluess's comment in Peak Trans VI! Tell your story here
  5. 255 points: FatGraceJones's comment in Janelle Monáe labelled problematic for daring to spread positivity about vaginas
  6. 251 points: Ergative_Absolutive's comment in Pornhub today. Yikes
  7. 238 points: Ergative_Absolutive's comment in Libfems who argue "sex work" is a job like any other are shocked and outraged when columnist takes this idea to its logical conclusion
  8. 235 points: RealMapelFlavour's comment in So, the pussy hats are violent & offensive, but a penis hat at the Women's March isn't? 🤔
  9. 235 points: glazedhamster's comment in Dude wonders why he gets sexually excited about dressing up as a woman even though it's totes not a sexual thing.
  10. 229 points: Black_Phillipa's comment in When they try to deny that their idea of "being a woman" is just them perpetuating oppressive gender roles, remember this: 336 upvotes. They're so fucking transparent.
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2018.05.20 05:33 ChloeMomo Giant list about why I'm vegan and hope you'll consider it, too

Info for passerbys and lurkers as well as info to share when talking to others! I hope it helps :D
Philosopher Tom Regan: 'The position we [vegans] hold is often said to be 'extreme' and those of us who hold it are said to be 'extremists'. The unspoken suggestions are that extreme positions cannot be right, and that extremists must be wrong. But I am an extremist when it comes to rape — I am against it all the time. I am an extremist when it comes to child abuse — I am against it all the time. I am an extremist when it comes to sexual discrimination, racial discrimination — I am against it all the time. I am an extremist when it comes to abuse to the elderly — I am against it all the time. The plain fact is, moral truth often is extreme, and must be, for when the injustice is absolute, then one must oppose it — absolutely.' (thank you for sharing the quote u/YourVeganFallacyIs)
I realize it is incredibly easy to imagine the inside of a slaughterhouse and not be so affected by it—for the human grasp is limited.It can’t hear the sound of a large animal pushed against its will into a kill chute, its frantic struggles, the reverberating pop of the captive-bolt pistol, the heavy thump to the floor, the kicking against metal, the groaning of the dying, the screech of pulleys and chains, the hydraulic release hiss, the splashing blood, like water from a garden hose hitting cement. It can’t smell the stench of manure and sweat, blood and putrefying flesh and organs. It can’t feel the absolute fear, panic, terror. It can’t know the absolute will of each and every life to desperately, frantically, vainly hold on.The human mind can’t imagine the inside of a slaughterhouse; it is something one can only experience—and it is utterly shocking. (thank you for sharing the quote u/DreamTeamVegan)
A couple famous speeches, too
Earthling Ed
James Aspey
Gary Yourofsky

Let's begin with Ethics as the Core of Veganism, Shall We?

First: we need to recognize animals are scientifically proven to have consciousness and sentience
http://fcmconference.org/img/CambridgeDeclarationOnConsciousness.pdf
https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21528836.200-animals-are-conscious-and-should-be-treated-as-such/
https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/animal-emotions/201306/universal-declaration-animal-sentience-no-pretending
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168159106001110http://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/2/4/628/htm
Second: I have some videos for those who do like more explanation but still don't like reading too much material.
Third: This Lovely explanation about dairy from u/DreamTeamVegan
Here's some more information about dairy for you (I wish I had known all this when I was a vegetarian).

Forced Impregnation

In order for a cow to produce milk, the cow must be pregnant. The cows are artificially inseminated which involves humans forcibly inserting semen into the cow's vagina. Here is a video of this process, you can tell the cow is not comfortable and the process is a violation of rights.

Calves are separated from their mothers at birth

In order for the milk industry to make a profit they must remove the baby calves from their mothers so that they can sell the milk for us to drink. This process is very emotionally painful for both the mother and her baby.
This report states that 97\% of calves are removed from their mothers in the first 24 hours including 65% that are removed immediately.

Veal is a by-product of the dairy industry

Male calves serve no purpose to the dairy industry because they do not produce milk. So they are sold for veal. Supporting the dairy industry also supports the sale of veal, the two are very connected.
The industry itself discussing that veal started in dairy farms.
The industry discussing how quickly male calves are slaughtered

Dairy Cows are Killed

Dairy cows are killed when they are "spent", i.e when they no longer produce milk at a profitable rate. This is long before their natural lifespan.
Every 11 seconds in the US a dairy cow is slaughtered for beef.

Health consequences for dairy cows

Repeated impregnation and milking combined with selective breeding and hormones to increase milk production leads to health consequences for dairy cows.
Milk Fever
Surveys in the USA suggest around 5% of cows will develop milk fever each year and the incidence of subclinical hypocalcemia – blood Ca values between 2 and 1.38 mmol/L (8 and 5.5 mg/dL) during the periparturient period – is around 50% in older cows (Horst et al., 2003)
Mastitis
In Sweden, the number of veterinary- treated cases of mastitis per 100 lactations was 18.3 in year 2000–2001, and udder diseases, together with high SCC (somatic count), were the second leading reason for culling in year 2001, accounting for nearly 24% of culled cows (Svensk Mjo¨lk, 2002).
Also in that same paper:
Selection has traditionally focused on production traits. Today it is generally accepted that undesirable genetic relationships exist between production and health disorders, including mastitis (e.g., Rauw et al., 1998). According to several studies, milk production is unfavorably genetically correlated with both clinical mastitis and SCC (e.g., Emanuelson et al., 1988; Nielsen et al., 1997; Rupp and Boichard, 1999; Heringstad et al., 2000; Castillo-Juarez et al., 2002; Hansen et al., 2002)
Fourth: Some good, old-fashioned kill counters. I recommend opening up the active counter, watch something on Netlfix, then come back to see how many animals died for food during that single episode. It's staggering.
http://considerveganism.com/info/slaughter-interval.jpg
http://thevegancalculator.com/animal-slaughte

OK, OK, OK, But Why Would You Care About Animals? It's Not Like They're Humans.

But even if you don't care about nonhuman animals, humans are animals and deserve ethical consideration as well. Here's some links relating to the increased rates of PTSD, violence, and psychological disconnect slaughterhouse employees face as well as their disproportionately dangerous work places.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301576603_Routinized_killing_of_animals_Going_beyond_dirty_work_and_prestige_to_understand_the_well-being_of_slaughterhouse_workers
http://www.ptsdjournal.com/posts/the-psychological-damage-of-slaughterhouse-work/
https://yaleglobalhealthreview.com/2016/01/25/a-call-to-action-psychological-harm-in-slaughterhouse-workers/amp/
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1086026609338164
http://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/geojpovlp15&div=17&id=&page=
http://img2.timg.co.il/forums/1/badfa52a-4115-491a-aba1-a9376ea2e193.pdf
http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/15685306-12341284
http://www.foodispower.org/slaughterhouse-workers/
http://www.nelp.org/content/uploads/OSHA-Severe-Injury-Data-2015-2016.pdf
And if you still have an issue with human vs nonhuman rights? Here's a video covering that, too.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fr26scqsIwk

And What About the World We Depend on to Survive?

For a documentary to begin to introduce you, watch Cowspiracy
This just in: the best thing you can do to reduce your impact on earth is avoid meat and dairy
Ocean Dead Zones, Extinction, and the majority of the Pacific Garbage Patch being dumped commercial fishing gear
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/aug/01/meat-industry-dead-zone-gulf-of-mexico-environment-pollution
https://news.stanford.edu/news/2005/march16/gulf-030905.html
http://dujs.dartmouth.edu/2012/03/the-threats-of-overfishing-consequences-at-the-commercial-level/#.WVUWN2jyvIV
http://www.fao.org/newsroom/common/ecg/1000505/en/stocks.pdf
https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2018/03/great-pacific-garbage-patch-plastics-environment/
Fresh Water Consumption aka animal products consume FAR more water than their plant counterparts
http://www.cat.org.uk/education/pdf/how_much_water_does_it_take_to_make_a_burger.pdf
http://waterfootprint.org/media/downloads/Hoekstra-2012-Water-Meat-Dairy.pdf
Sustainability comparison
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/78/3/660S/4690010
Deforestation (91\% of Amazon Rainforest deforestation since 1970 is due to animal ag)
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/758171468768828889/pdf/277150PAPER0wbwp0no1022.pdf
https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation/?rptregcta=reg_free_np&rptregcampaign=20131016_rw_membership_r1p_intl_ot_w#

And Health! Let's keep our general species (and ourselves) as healthy as we can

Vegan diet suitable for all life stages including pregnancy, breast feeding, and performing athletes
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19562864
First: Athletes who went vegan. Bear in mind, this is their career. They wouldn't do something like this if it actually had a risk of hurting their performance and their careesalary. They're doing it because they're seeing imporvements.
8 Winter Olympic Vegan Athletes
http://www.mercyforanimals.org/8-vegan-olympians-to-get-you-hyped-for-the
NFL players and others going vegan to *increase* performance
https://www.cnbc.com/2018/01/31/why-nfl-players-and-other-athletes-are-going-vegan.html
23 World Class vegan athletes
http://www.greatveganathletes.com/
Serena Williams and others vegan
https://www.irishexaminer.com/breakingnews/lifestyle/serena-williams-and-other-top-athletes-are-vegan-so-can-a-plant-based-diet-give-you-the-edge-832633.html
Athletes who are vegan and why they made the switch
http://www.businessinsider.com/elite-athletes-who-are-vegan-and-what-made-them-switch-their-diet-2017-10
Vegan NBA players
https://www.sbnation.com/2017/10/25/16505120/nba-vegan-vegetarian-tracker-food-trend-wilson-chandler-kyrie-irving-damian-lillard-enes-kanter
15 Vegan bodybuilders
https://www.menshealth.com/fitness/a19535559/vegan-bodybuilders-instagram/
Vegan Professional Cyclists
https://www.welovecycling.com/wide/2016/07/12/pro-cyclists-went-veg-meat-really-necessary/
7 "Jacked" vegan athletes WITH their examples of what they eat
https://www.mensjournal.com/food-drink/what-7-elite-vegan-athletes-eat-get-and-stay-ultra-jacked/
Vegan/vegetarian/and transitioning to more plant based professional fighters
http://www.fuelforthefighter.com/the-fighte
Vegan Olympic triathlete
http://www.greatveganathletes.com/brendan-brazier-vegan-triathlete
Video: Trailer to The Game Changers
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bMQ1rzz9t5w
Second: Who cares abut the dairy vs soy estrogen argument?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4524299/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712661/
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-pdf/68/6/1413S/24039182/1413s.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9848509
http://www.pcrm.org/health/cancer-resources/ask/ask-the-expert-soy
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3097497/
https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/129/3/758S/4722179
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/68/6/1333S/4666199
http://www.pcrm.org/health/diets/vegdiets/health-concerns-about-dairy-products
Third: The user deleted their name from the comment, so IDK where to give credit
Cancer:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23169929
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22121108
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11743810
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18789600
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22342103
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15955547
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19279082
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18980957
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3081176
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22867847
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21422422
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12588089
Diabetes:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19386029/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24523914
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19351712
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18481955
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23509418
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16596361
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15983191
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23509418
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24149445
Heart Disease:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17518696
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/108/22/2757.full.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7019459
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1312295/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15172426
Osteoporosis:
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25352269
American Dietetics Association Position on veganism:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19562864
Longest Living Population:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11434797
Low Carbohydrate Diets and mortality:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20820038
Plant foods have a complete Amino Acid profile:
http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/105/25/e197.full
http://nutritionstudies.org/animal-vs-plant-protein/
Benefits of a vegan diet:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4691673/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3967195/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4073139/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4245565/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4583329/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4844163/
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2677007/
Fourth: Thank you for the detailed explanations, u/Remos_
  1. Heme-Iron, found in red meat, is a pro-oxidant which can cause DNA damage and can catalyze the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are potent carcinogens. It also makes your LDL more prone to oxidation. High intake of Heme-iron from meat may be an important dietary factor risk factor for esophageal and stomach cancer. An increase of only 1mg per day of Heme-Iron increases your risk of coronary heart disease by 27%. 1mg of iron is only about 5% of your daily recommend iron requirement. Your body has no mechanism of ridding itself from excess iron. So once you’ve absorbed too much iron, your body has no way of getting rid of it, which is why iron absorption is tightly regulated by your intestines. If your iron stores are high, your intestines will reduce iron absorption and vice versa. However, the problem is Heme-Iron is that it by-passes this regulatory system making it extremely easy to absorb too much iron. Heme-Iron is also a pro-oxidant meaning it makes your cholesterol more prone to oxidation and in turn increase your risk of heart disease. N-nitroso compounds are also found in cigarettes and are one of the reasons cigarettes are so cancer causing.
  2. (See comments for more info) Cholesterol is the only risk factor for atherosclerosis (plaque build up in the arteries), not stress, fatigue, weight, cigarette smoking, inflammation, degenerative, genetics, or inactivity. Atherosclerosis affects only herbivores. Dogs, cats, tigers, and lions (carnivores) can be saturated with fat and cholesterol, and atherosclerotic plaques do not develop. Studies have shown that even when fed 200 times the amount of animal fat and cholesterol that the average human consumes each day, carnivores do not develop the hardening of the arteries that leads to heart disease and strokes in humans. (Study done by the head of the American Journal of Cardiology, William C. Roberts, who is vegan) Remember that heart disease kills more than 600,000 people yearl**y****
  3. When sedentary (non-physically active) vegans were compared to marathon runners (who on average ran 48 miles per week for 20 years while following a typical western diet) of equal BMI (21), it was found that the marathon runners had higher intima media thickness in their carotid artery. The marathon runners had 0.63mm and the sedentary vegans had 0.56mm. This means that marathon runners had more atherosclerosic plaque in their arteries than the couch-potato vegans. It was also found that the vegans also had much lower blood pressure than the marathon runners.
  4. Dr. Kim Williams (who is also vegan), president of the American College of Cardiology, also suspects that exercise plays a smaller role than diet in health and disease prevention. Just look at athletes like some basketball players and football players, many have died in their 40’s and 50’s even though they are supposedly at pinnacle health and performance.
  5. Vegan diets have been shown to provide significant protection in overall cancer risk but they are also particularly protective against hormone related cancers such as breast and prostate cancers. This is because animal protein raises IGF-1 levels and IGF-1 help cancer cells break off from the main tumor, invade surrounding tissue, and enter the bloodstream. Certain forms of cancer, like breast cancer, also feed off of cholesterol. Both breast and prostate cancer are both dependent on cholesterol rich lipid rafts for survival. So the cholesterol lowering effect of a vegan diet grants additional benefits against these forms of cancer. In population studies, total cholesterol levels are associated with greater risk of breast and prostate cancer. Even some vegetarians have identical IGF-1 to meat eaters!
  6. Cooking meat also produces carcinogenic compounds known as heterocyclic amines (HCAs). They are mutagenic - that is, they cause damage in DNA that increase your risk of cancer. There are also polycyclic amines (PAHs) which are formed when fat and juices from meat are grilled directly over an open fire drip onto the fire, causing flames. These flames contain PAHs that then adhere to the surface of the meat. PAHs can also be formed during other food preparation processes, such as smoking of meats. PAHs can be found in other charred foods, as well as in cigarette smoke and car exhaust fumes.
  7. Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol increase our serum (blood) cholesterol. The healthy range for LDL cholesterol is between 50mg/dl and 70 mg/dl. Past 75mg/dl causes the progression of atherosclerosis. Don’t go past 150 mg/dl total.
  8. Animal protein is as insulinogenic as pure sugar. Even when meat intake is controlled for caloric intake, weight gain and diabetes is are still risk factors.
  9. Saturated fats and cholesterol kill insulin related beta cells.
  10. Eating a lot of meat and not enough fruits and vegetables means that your diet is highly acidic and diets high in acid formation have been shown to promote muscle loss, especially in older adults. This is likely due to calcium being leached from the muscles to buffer the acid load.
  11. Diets high in alkalizing foods may help promote muscle mass as well as help reduce cancer risk since some forms of cancer rely on acidity and on average, vegans have blood that eight-times less hospitable to cancer cells.
  12. Certain forms of cancer are dependent on other forms of nutrients like methionine (the low methionine vegan diets help to starve out certain cancers) and it’s an amino acid found in high concentrations in animal products (meat, diary & eggs). Methionine increases oxidative stress and inflammation. Fish is the highest dietary source of methionine and they also happen to be contaminated by heavy metals (like mercury) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) that disrupt our endocrine system which end up having an estrogen like effect. Dark fish like Salmon are associated with atrial fibrillation. These marine polluants are also a risk factor to type 2 diabetes and pre-natal exposure to mercury reduces brain size. Farmed salmon contains more enviornmental pollutants than wild caught salmon. They also have more calories, total fat, saturated fat and sometimes even cholesterol. Farmed salmon have a lower ratio of Omega 3 to Omega 6 fats. Neither farmed or wild salmon can be consumed at a rate to provide 1g of EPA/DHA while maintaining acceptable levels of carcinogenic risk. Although, farmed salmon had a cumulative cancer risk of 24x above the acceptable level, Wild salmon was 8x the acceptable level (while trying to get your acceptable EPA/DHA levels). Fish intake has also been shown to increase risk of allergies. The low methionine vegan diets help to starve out certain cancers.
  13. Chickens have the highest phthalate concentration level of any food. Phthalates are chemicals that are used to make plastics, known as plasticizers because they make plastics more flexible. These chemicals reduce the testosterone levels in men, reduce fertility in men, decrease thyroid function, increase risk of obesity and diabetes and infants with prenatal phthalate exposure have shrunken penis’s. Phthalate exposure in kids has been associated with a reduced IQ.
  14. 3 - 4 Eggs a week more than triples your diabetes risk. choline intake (from eggs or not) will increase your risks for cancer and heart disease (even though almonds have choline, its only about 1mg per serving; eggs have about ~115mg).
  15. Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol increase our serum (blood) cholesterol. The healthy range for LDL cholesterol is between 50mg/dl and 70 mg/dl. Past 75mg/dl causes the progression of atherosclerosis. Don’t go past 150 mg/dl total.
  16. High carbohydrate diets (which is what vegan diets tend to be) have demonstrated to be optimal in lowering diabetes risk, heart disease risk, and decreasing BMI. The issue with high fat/high protein is that protein insulinogenic, meaning insulin is required to metabolise the protein. Certain proteins like whey protein is as insulinogenic as pure sugar. Insulin is also not required to store fat, as fat will be stored in your body as adipose tissue without the use of insulin. Fat is so efficiently stored as adipose tissue that an adipose tissue biopsy can tell your dietary fat sources of that last 1-2 years. So the theory that eating no carbs will result in no insulin being released therefore the body won’t store fat is utterly and demonstrably false. However, this diet can induce insulin hyperinsulinemia which is a state where your body keeps producing, continually, high levels insulin because fat inhibits insulin function and your body tries to compensate by producing more insulin. This has been directly linked to inducing obesity. Saturated fat also prevents insulin clearance which aids in development of hyperinsulinemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Not only is fat so efficiently stored but it also alters your intestinal flora in such a way that it promotes weight gain. In order for carbohydrates to be converted into fat, they must go through a process known as de novo lipogenesis which has a 30% energy cost. This means that even if all the carbs you ate became strictly adipose tissue, you’d only have about 70% of what you actually consumed. Fortunately for humans, this process is a minor pathway and pretty much all the carbs you eat going to be used for energy or stored as glycogen. Also, in most cases, excess carbohydrates will be burned off as body heat because carbohydrates cause their own oxidation. Not only is fat so efficiently stored but it also alters your intestinal flora in such a way that it promotes weight gain.
  17. Milk and diary contains the female hormones estrogen and progesterone which is have been shown to lower serum testosterone level. Also, a lot of dairy products have trans-fats in them. After the intake of cow-milk, serum estrone and progesterone (female hormones) are significantly increased. However, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone are significantly decreased. Although there is estrogen in both in cows and even in plants, there are very big differences. The estrogen in cow's milk is mammalian and the estrogen found in soy is phytoestrogen. The difference is that the mammalian estrogen is identical to the estrogen found/created in your own body whereas the estrogen in plants isn’t. A meta analysis comparing the two found that neither soy foods nor isoflavone supplements alter the bioavailable testosterone found in men. Also, fiber is a huge component in ridding your body of excess estrogen. Fiber soaks up excess estrogen in your colon and you therefore excrete it out. Therefore, eating a low in fiber diet filled with animal products, like meat and milk, will surely raise your estrogen levels.
  18. Saturated fats also produce toxic breakdown products known as non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA’s) which damage the insulin producing beta cells in your pancreas which also contributes to diabetes.
  19. People with PCSK9 gene mutations had 28% lower LDL cholesterol which resulted in an 88% reduction in risk for coronary heart disease.
  20. Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol cause inflammation and make your low-density lipoproteins more prone to oxidation.
  21. Meat also contains high microbial loads which cause inflammation. The sulfur containing amino acids found in meat also increase our acid load which can cause muscle wasting in older adults.
  22. Nitrogen balance is a key factor in building muscle and it is crucial to be in positive level. Milked-derived casein, egg white powder, and soy protein isolate are all considered to have the highest bio-availability. When SPI was substituted for casein or egg white powder, there was no difference in nitrogen balance. Even lentils, which have half a much bioavailability, have the same effect on nitrogen balance. This means these plant based proteins have no negative effect on muscle growth. Although many plants miss out on certain amino acids, this doesn’t seem to have an effect on muscle growth especially when you’re taking in an overall high amount of protein, which is appropriate for strength athletes. Rice and pea protein supplements had equivalent effects on muscle growth and strength gains when compared to whey protein.
  23. People going on a low-carb diet may not see a rise in their cholesterol levels. How is that possible? It's because weight loss by any means can lower someone's cholesterol. Chemotherapy can drop cholesterol like a rock as will a good cocaine habit or tuberculosis. Anything that drops our weight, drops our cholesterol. However, the goal isn’t to fit in a skinnier casket, the reason we care about cardiovascular risk factors like cholesterol is because the cardiovascular risk, the health of our arteries. A meta-analysis (from the British Journal of Nutrition) of the best studies to date on the impact of low carb on arteries directly, found that low-carb diets impair arterial function. Significant decreases were found in flow-mediated dilation when compared to a low-fat counterpart.
  24. Medical costs of treating heart disease and stroke were estimated at $94 billion in 2010, and this figure is projected to nearly triple by 2030. According to methods commonly used by economists, the increased longevity that would result if Americans ate the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables is worth over $11 trillion. If Americans ate just one more serving of fruits or vegetables per day, this would save more than 30,000 lives and $5 billion in medical costs each year. If Americans were to follow current USDA recommendations for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables, those numbers would go up to more than 127,000 lives and $17 billion saved.
Sixth: Antibiotic Resistance is becoming a real threat thanks to factory farming
http://consumersunion.org/news/the-overuse-of-antibiotics-in-food-animals-threatens-public-health-2/
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/antibiotic-resistance-will-kill-300-million-people-by-2050/
https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-drug-resistant-bacteria-travel-from-the-farm-to-your-table/
submitted by ChloeMomo to vegan [link] [comments]