Tunisian dating

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Dating in tunisia

2020.09.29 14:35 vaasglitch Dating in tunisia

I'm Tunisian and freshman student at university and thinking of dating a girl that she is my classmate.
I hear people talking about dating all the time and wanted to know what are the perks of dating? Is it just talking and sharing stories. Do you get into physical intimacy or this is rare? Is it sexual?
I know a girl (not Tunisian) that she was physically intimate with me and we were not in a relationship but now she is abroad.
So my question is how is dating in Tunisia like. What perks do I get. This girl I think of dating is from sousse and she said that she loves me but she doesn't want to be physically intimate. Like touching hands or kissing. Nevertheless she scrutinizes me if i don't ask how she is doing for one day.
I really hope i get good answers from you guys. And also looking forward to hear some of your experiences in the matter.
Thank you very much guys.
submitted by vaasglitch to Tunisia [link] [comments]


2020.09.28 18:13 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Manihar of India

Welcome back to our UPG of the week posts! Meet the Manihar in India!
How Unreached Are They?
The Manihar are 0.00% Christian. That means at best there are a handful of believers among the 562,000 of them.
There is a completed Bible in their language.
What are they like?
Typical qualification that all people groups can't be summed up in small paragraphs and this is an over generalization.
The business of making and selling of bangles has long been the livelihood of Manihar communities. Due to the limited availability of elephant tusks for ivory, many bangles and beads now are manufactured in plastics. Today some Manihar take other jobs including tailoring. The literacy rate among the Manihar tends to be low. They speak primary Nepali and use Urdu and Bhojpuri in Nepal and mainly Urdu and Hindi in India. They are Sunni Muslims and tend to share foods with other Muslim families but traditionally do not allow marriage outside their community. Siddiqi can be a common surname. Joshua Project
The Manihar are mostly engaged in their traditional business of making and selling glass and lac bangles known locally as churi or chuda. Alongside these standard wares, some of them also sell goods like cosmetics, tikli (forehead jewelry) and sealing wax. Theirs is a cottage industry, both men and women working together in their homes from where they sell directly to customers and to local shopkeepers. Some own small factories.
They are highly skilled at making bangles, creating intricate designs, of every color, shapes and sizes. In Gujarat, the Manihar used to make bangles from ivory, but due to international bans on elephant tusks they now make the ornately carved bangles from plastic as well as glass. Some of the Manihar, such as those in Uttar Pradesh have taken up tailoring as an occupation while some are self-employed as rickshaw drivers, poultry farmers, and vegetable sellers. A few of them are government employees while others are wage labourers. There are a few businessmen and office workers among them.
The Manihar are strictly prohibited from eating pork by their Islamic faith. Their staple food includes wheat, millet and rice, supplemented by lentils, vegetables and occasional seasonal fruit. They drink milk and dairy products but do not have alcohol or opium. Use of tobacco products like zarda (flavoured chewing tobacco), bidi (rolled tendu leaves) and paan (betel) is common among them. Fine vermicelli cooked in rich, sweetened milk is the traditional sweet served on festive occasions like the termination of the forty-day fast.
The Manihar do send their children, mostly boys, to school. Some may reach college level. Daughters finish at primary school due to socio-economic reasons. The literacy levels of some states like Gujarat, is very low. People Groups of India
History Lesson
The word Manihar is derived from Man, meaning jewel in Urdu, and the agentive sufix har. Their traditional Landlords and merchants are also known as saudagar, this word being derived from they claims descent from the first Caliph of Islam, Abu Bakr, and as such are sub-group of the Siddiqui Manihar community. Wikipedia
They migrated from the Sindh region of Pakistan about two hundred years ago. People Groups of India
What do they believe?
The Manihar are 100% Muslim.
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Manihar India 09/28/2020 Islam
Tianba China 09/21/2020 Animism
Arab Qatar 09/14/2020 Islam
Turkmen Turkmenistan 08/31/2020 Islam
Lyuli Uzbekistan 08/24/2020 Islam
Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 08/17/2020 Islam*
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.09.24 22:41 snugglemews Nui Cobalt: Autumn Part II Release

Hi everyone - I just got the e-mail with the upcoming scents to be released tomorrow (September 25, 2020) at 11:11AM PST! I thought others may be interested :)
~ BLUE MOON ON SAMHAIN ~ A luminous potion for casting your most powerful spells. Smooth driftwood glistening with sea salt, pearl gardenia, oat milk, coconut flesh, forget-me-not, neroli, and a trace of lavender. Wear to enhance intuition or amplify magical potency. Anoint ritual candles to invoke Lunar deities and nocturnal spirits.
~ CALICO CAT ~ A dynamic blend to keep you resilient and adaptable. Tawny suede, pale sandalwood, toasted coconut, deep amber, and golden honey are accented with bright satsuma, and spiced tamarind. Wear for smooth navigation of challenges. Anoint the tools of your profession to turn obstacles into opportunities.* Please note: this perfume contains cinnamon, and should be avoided by those with cinnamon sensitivities.
~ SINISTER MIST ~ An inscrutable fog rolls in, blurring the lines and muting the colors. The lamplight is born aloft on a million miniscule droplets. It is the liminal space: the nexus of the Known and the Unknown, where Witches weave reality.Young teakwood, fresh cut leaves of eucalyptus and spearmint, a scant twist of lime, copal smoke clinging to cashmere, dry white vanilla, and chilled crepuscular musk. Anoint your hands in preparation for spellcraft. Wear to bed for support in lucid dreaming.
~ SPRING-HEELED JACK ~ An ode to the cultural phenomenon of the Urban Legend: the shared stories that reveal our collective fears and darker inclinations.London fog, rain-soaked cobblestones, blue Atlas cedar, bergamot, charcoal tweed, grey musk, and the fading scent of Victorian violet powder.
~ THE WIDOW WORE RED ~ A shameless concoction of spiced plum, lascivious musk, patchouli, tart cherry, sweet pipe tobacco, warm gingerbread drizzled with vanilla caramel dusted with clove, coriander, and cardamom. Wear when you're ready to liberate yourself from sorrow and doubt, to abandon all pretense of timidity and let your Fierce flag fly.
~ WITCHING IN THE GRAVEYARD ~ An enchanted collaboration with my magical co-conspirator and dear friend, Sheri. The scent of a graveyard on the first frost. 18th century Witches in heeled leather boots tread silently across brittle grass to pluck yew berries from gravestones. Before crossing back through the cold iron gates, they leave payment of silver coins and good whiskey. The mineral scent of freshly turned earth, amber musk, cocobolo wood, moss-covered oak, petrichor, vetiver, bourbon, and hay.
~ INCENSE & SPIDERSILK ~ A meditative variation on our beloved Starlight and Spidersilk. Slender strands of cotton flower hung with trembling dewdrops, cold crystalline musk, tiny black vanilla beans, light and dark amber, copal, nag champa, frankincense, and myrrh. Wear to quiet the thoughts and open the mind. It is particularly helpful in restoring calm after stressful encounters.
~ PUMPKINS & SPIDERSILK ~ An autumnal variation on our beloved Starlight and Spidersilk. Slender strands of cotton flower hung with trembling dewdrops, cold crystalline musk, tiny black vanilla beans, pumpkin chai, hot cinnamon rolls, nutmeg, clove, allspice, and a scant drop of honey. Wear to warm your heart, lift your spirits, and take time for simple pleasures.* Please note: this perfume contains cinnamon, and should be avoided by those with cinnamon sensitivities.
~ SEDUCED BY SPIDERSILK ~ A provocative variation on our beloved Starlight and Spidersilk. Slender strands of cotton flower hung with trembling dewdrops, cold crystalline musk, tiny black vanilla beans, cherry wine, dragon’s blood and amber resins, tupelo honey, and an irresistible blend of aphrodisiac spices: cardamom, clove, ginger root, coriander, and cassia. Wear to ensnare the object of your desire and to ignite carnal passions.* Please note: this perfume contains cinnamon, and should be avoided by those with cinnamon sensitivities.
~ SHADOW & SPIDERSILK ~ A dusky variation on our beloved Starlight and Spidersilk. Slender strands of cotton flower hung with trembling dewdrops, cold crystalline musk, tiny black vanilla beans, myrrh, black agarwood, tea-stained linen, tobacco, and clove. Created at the Autumnal Equinox to balance light with darkness. Wear to restore equilibrium and a sense of stability.
~ STORIES & SPIDERSILK ~ A scholarly variation on our beloved Starlight and Spidersilk. Slender strands of cotton flower hung with trembling dewdrops, cold crystalline musk, tiny black vanilla beans, aging leather-bound books, pipe tobacco, and towering wooden shelves. Wear to honor the spirits of wordsmiths past, to invoke your literary Muse, and to enhance eloquence.
~ WOODSMOKE & SPIDERSILK ~ A cozy variation on our beloved Starlight and Spidersilk. Slender strands of cotton flower hung with trembling dewdrops, cold crystalline musk, tiny black vanilla beans, aged oakwood, roasted pistachio, mahogany, oud, Peru balsam, amyris, and toasted marshmallow. Wear for calming and comfort. Warm in an oil diffuser to cast a spell of Hygge within the home.

Selections from previous Autumns:

Please note: returning scents are in very limited quantities and once sold out may not be available again.
~ PALE AS DEATH ~ Wan and bloodless phantoms move forlorn among the headstones.Funeral lilies, datura accord, luna moths on cotton flowers, and white clover along a graveyard path. Wear this conciliatory potion for support in times of sadness. It is particularly helpful through the process of grieving.
~ CRONE'S COTTAGE ~ Encouragement in a bottle.This witches' brew is imbued with strength, fortitude, and optimism. Oatmeal cookies still warm from the oven, beeswax candles on the windowsill, a warm cup of strong black tea with milk, and a generous dollop of honey. Wear this heartening scent to prepare for any challenge and restore a sense of self-confidence.
~ BLOOD CURSE ~ A protection blend that is not to be trifled with. Sicilian figs, oak-aged Bordeaux, Tunisian incense, blackcurrant preserves, Louisiana pralines, tart dried cherry, a spritz of red grapefruit and smooth sanguine musk. Wear to send any jinx or malefaction back to where it came from. It's been known to bring swift and severe punishment to those of ill intent.
~ ENTOMBED ~ An Autumnal sleeping spell to rival our acclaimed Tryptophan. Cemetary stones enshrouded in mist, wild English lavender, blue chamomile, rain, and freshly turned earth. Wear this scent before going to bed for restorative rest and pleasant dreams.
~ EXSANGUINATED ~ A vampiric fragrance for seduction and allure. Mulled wine infused with blood orange, pomegranate, and cherry, smoldering dragon's blood resin, and a velvet-lined mahogany coffin strewn with red roses. Wear when in pursuit of prey or add to love-drawing baths to amplify their power.
~ EXORCISED ~ A bracing purification blend to cleanse yourself and your space. Snow-covered spruce, rock moss, chilled Earl Grey and pale frankincense. Anoint your pulse points to banish negativity or add a few drops to an oil diffuser to cleanse and protect your home.
~ DRUNK PUMPKIN ~ A boozy scent to honor the spirits and celebrate the change of seasons. An oversized pumpkin punchbowl filled with hot apple cider, Caribbean dark rum, Tennessee whiskey, cinnamon sticks, ginger root and a twist of lemon. Wear when navigating life's big changes, and to summon help from beyond the Veil.* Please note: this perfume contains cinnamon, and should be avoided by those with cinnamon sensitivities.
~ BABY PUMPKIN ~ A scent to inspire sweetness and affection. Homemade maple pumpkin bread with Autumn harvest honey, spiced with nutmeg and clove, drizzled with salted caramel, and dotted with Turkish apricot. Wear when you're in the mood for gentle hugs, earnest compliments, and warm appreciation.
~ PUMPKIN CUPCAKE ~ A comforting scent to ease your mind and soothe your nerves. Whipped white pumpkin between layers of angel food cake, marshmallow frosting, and a light dusting of allspice. Wear in times of stress to keep a level head and a positive attitude.
~ FLAMING PUMPKIN ~ A powerful prosperity blend to quickly draw abundant wealth and success. Woodsmoke, burnt brown sugar, two types of patchouli, fresh ginger root, and Jarrahdale pumpkin pureed with nutmeg and a spritz of blood orange. Anoint green or gold candles to add oomph to your money spells, or wear when you're ready to ask for that raise.
~ BAD MOON RISING ~ A gentle protection blend to carry you through the tough times. Wild violets, Adirondack blueberries, star anise, blackcurrants preserved in maple sugar with clove and a touch of almond. Wear during inauspicious astrological events or bouts of plain "bad luck." It has a talent for steering the winds of fortune in a more helpful direction.
~ SCAREDY CAT ~ A blend for courage and confidence. Tobacco flower, nag champa, white amber, warm fur accord, Omani musk and molten caramel. Wear when you need to be poised and fearless. It's an indispensable ally during interviews, presentations, exams, or first dates.
~ AU BAL MASQUE ~ The sheer, spectral scent of elegant ghosts waltzing through the haunted halls of an abandoned palace. Nepalese virgin cashmere, cotton flower, vanilla spun sugar, labdanum, and the wafting memory of white funeral lilies. Wear this scent to attract benevolent spirits and to honor the beloved dead.
~ SILVER BULLET ~ A swift banishment blend to dispel anger, frustration, and any feral lunacy that muddles the mind. Wolf musk accord with wild white currant, chilled clary sage, dried lavender, lime leaves, and a subtle hint of almond bark infused with homegrown hyssop, lemon verbena, and white peppercorn. Wear this soothing potion in stressful situations or when you feel the stirrings of the savage beast within.A luminous potion for casting your most powerful spells. Smooth driftwood glistening with sea salt, pearl gardenia, oat milk, coconut flesh, forget-me-not, neroli, and a trace of lavender. Wear to enhance intuition or amplify magical potency. Anoint ritual candles to invoke Lunar deities and nocturnal spirits.
submitted by snugglemews to Indiemakeupandmore [link] [comments]


2020.09.21 17:20 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Tianba of China

I cut my finger open like a big dummy while I was making apple pie with my girlfriend this weekend so most of today will be copy paste but now introducing the Tianba of China!
How Unreached Are They?
Joshua Project has the Tianba at 0.00% Christian. That is inaccurate. However I do not have accurate numbers other than knowing that isn't accurate. So, there are at least a handful of believers in their population of 111,000.
There is a New Testament in their language/dialect! (However most of them cannot read)
What are they like?
Typical qualification that all people groups can't be summed up in small paragraphs and this is an over generalization.
The Tianba, as well as most of the Nosu, are traditionally farmers in the mountains. They farm soy, rice, rape seed, and a bunch of other stuff. They keep sheep, goats, water buffalo, and chickens. They are not limited to the old one child policy that China had, so many of them have at least 3 siblings, if not more. They are mostly animist (more on that later). Many of the Nosu peoples have a strong tendency to alcoholism, with the men drinking together all day and the women doing much of the work.
The Tianba Nosu have been influenced by Chinese culture more than the other Nosu groups in Sichuan, although they still retain their traditional dress and most of their ceremonies and customs.
About the Yinuo
Because of the distinctive style of dress formerly worn by the Yinuo Nosu, the region they inhabit is generally known as the "broad-legged trousers region." In the past, the striking characteristic of men's garments was the broad bottoms of the trouser legs. The men no longer where these in daily life. Sometimes there are culture festivals where traditional costumes are worn. The women's traditional dress, however, is still very much in use and can be seen on the streets every day. Women also like to wear wide pleated skirts. The number of pleats sometimes comes to more than one hundred. Girls wear multicolored headscarfs made of black cloth. Married women increase the layers of their headscarfs. After having a baby, they wear leaf-shaped bonnets.
History Lesson
Violent conflict, intertribal and interclan warfare, and the taking of slaves were commonplace among the various branches of the Nosu until recently. When preparing for war, clear rules were followed by the Tianba Nosu. These included "sending out a wooden tablet calling on all members of the clan, its tenants, serfs, and slaves to assemble; each family would assent by making a mark on the tablet; tallying the marks would indicate how large a fighting force might be expected. War costumes were extremely colorful: some wore hats of woven bamboo covered with white cloth, thin woolen felts and yellow satin, with animal hair that would wave in the wind; they would carefully prepare their hair, interweaving it with a strip of cloth and tying it into a horn just above the forehead; some would cap this with a sheep horn wrapped in colorful silk and red pompons. ... The Yi [Nosu] would run forward, shout out their names, and challenge their enemies to fight. The War songs were equally aweinspiring: 'We are the famous Black Nosu! We are the tigers who eat up human flesh! We are the butchers who skin people alive! We are the supermen!'" Joshua Project
What do they believe?
The religious world of the Tianba Nosu is a complicated mixture of polytheism, animism, and ancestor worship. Because of Chinese influence, elements of Buddhism and Daoism are also present. Joshua Project
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Tianba China 09/21/2020 Animism
Arab Qatar 09/14/2020 Islam
Turkmen Turkmenistan 08/31/2020 Islam
Lyuli Uzbekistan 08/24/2020 Islam
Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 08/17/2020 Islam*
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.09.14 16:10 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Arab (Gulf Spoken) of Qatar

Welcome back to the UPG of the Week! Sorry I missed last week, I was on a very long and very wonderful/fun road trip and completely forgot on Labor Day. Now, without further ado, meet the Arabs of Qatar.
How Unreached Are They?
The Arabs of Qatar are only 0.5% Christian (if that). That means that out of their population of 500,000, there are maybe 2,500. Thats 1 believer for every 200 unbeliever.
There is not a fully completed bible in their language (Arabic, Gulf Spoken)
[Edit: From u/jakeallen]
there are good translations into Modern Standard Arabic. If someone in this group learns to read, they learn to read MSA, not a dialect.
The internet can do some good. Facebook ads can lead people to the right messaging. But in person witnessing will build the church, which is the hardest thing to do right now.
What are they like?
Typical qualification that all people groups can't be summed up in small paragraphs and this is an over generalization.
Life for Saudi Arabs is one of harsh existence with few material belongings. Their main possession is the home - a long tent made from woven goat or animal hair. These tents are not permanent dwellings and are divided into two parts by a decorative partition called a gata. Typically, half of the tent is for the women, children, cooking utensils, and storage, while the other half is for the men. The men's section, which contains a fireplace built in the dirt, is used for entertaining guests. Men sit and make plans for the group, while the women do most of the work.
Animals are very important to the Saudi Arab lifestyle. Those who stay close to the desert's edge herd goats and sheep; whereas, those who travel and raid in the desert rely solely on camels. Sheep and goats are raised for monetary value, and camels are used for transportation.
Dairy products have been the traditional food source for Saudi Arabs. Camel's and goat's milk is drunk fresh or made into yogurt and a kind of butter called ghee. Most Arab meals consist of a bowl of milk or yogurt, or rice covered with ghee. Round loaves of unleavened bread are also served when available. Dates, which can be found in desert oases, are eaten as desserts after meals. Meat is served only on special occasions, such as for guests, marriage feasts, or special ceremonies.
Reflecting the influence of their Muslim religion, the Saudi Arab practice endogamous marriages (marriage within a small social circle). Inheritance is patrilineal (inherited by the next male family member). Saudi Arab clothing is designed for the harsh climate. It is made of lightweight, light-colored fabric and is also loose-fitting, allowing for the circulation of air. Joshua Project
History Lesson
Saudi Arabia is home to a number of different Arab groups. Saudi Arabs (more commonly known as the Gulf Arab) live primarily along the southern edges of the Arabian Desert in Saudi Arabia, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. Saudi Arabs in Qatar speak a language called Arabiya or, as it is more commonly known, Gulf Arabic.
The Arab culture was developed by tribes of nomads and villagers who lived in the Arabian Desert. From there, some of them later migrated into northern Africa. There are two basic classes of Arab: the true nomads and the fellahin-those who have embraced farming. The nomads are best known for their treks across barren deserts on camels, occasionally raiding caravans crossing their paths. The fellahin are more settled, living on the edge of the desert. Most Saudi Arab are herdsmen, who move into the desert during the rainy winter season, then back to the desert's edge in the dry, hot summer. Joshua Project
What do they believe?
The founding of Islam in the seventh century profoundly altered the course of Saudi history. Today, the great majority of Saudi Arabs in Qatar are Hanbalite (Wahhabite) Muslims. In the mid-1700s, Mohammed ibn Abd al-Wahhab formed his fundamentalist sect, and today, the Saudi see themselves as the preservers of the true Islamic faith. The Wahhabites reject all innovations introduced into Islam after the third century of its existence and are very traditional in their practice of Islam. Their desire is to maintain and propagate what they see as the "true" path of Islam. Joshua Project
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Arab Qatar 09/14/2020 Islam
Turkmen Turkmenistan 08/31/2020 Islam
Lyuli Uzbekistan 08/24/2020 Islam
Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 08/17/2020 Islam*
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.09.07 21:10 throvvavvay__ How to approach Tunisian girls and start dating for a foreigner

I'm Moroccan so I know all about the Muslim/arab culture and stuff, I'm insecure about my accent when I approach girls, I can have a normal conversation in Tunisian arabic but it shows that I'm not Tunisian which i guess can be a turn off or something that will make a girl hesitate
But I'm going to be here for another 2 years or so and I want to start dating and see where it goes, I'm interested in girls who are already working or soon to graduate so we can have mature conversations and I don't want to just stop someone on the street and talk to them (that's weird)
I have Tunisian friends who spam mesaage girls on Instagram and Facebook and to me that's childish and seems pitty tbh (i see the irony coming from a guy posting on reddit) anyway, are there any tips or places where i can meet smart girls with high standards and who are open minded and won't get uncomfortable when someone approaches them? I really considered forgetting about this since my Entourage isn't quite the gentlemen, everyone is playing games and i think it's on both sides, and i definitely don't want games, am i wasting my time or are there an tips?
submitted by throvvavvay__ to Tunisia [link] [comments]


2020.09.01 14:47 GreetLFB About Bezness...

Hey guys,
I'm a French/Tunisian girl currently looking for people to talk about their experience trying to seduce European women to enjoy the summer, doing casual Bezness... or women who have dated men in hotel clubs, animators etc.
I would love to talk to you about a project if you know someone. I am currently based between Paris and Monastir! Waiting to read your testimonies and to get in touch!

Thanks!
submitted by GreetLFB to Tunisia [link] [comments]


2020.08.31 19:26 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Turkmen of Turkmenistan

I realized that I have never done any people group from Turkmenistan so here is the largest people group in Turkmenistan, the Turkmen people
How Unreached Are They?
The Turkmen are only 0.05% Christian. That means out of the 4,577,000 people, there are roughly only 2280 believers. On a different scale, that means for every 2,000 unbelievers there is only one single believer. Can you just imagine being that alone in such a massive population?
There is a completed bible in their language!
What are they like?
Typical qualification that all people groups can't be summed up in small paragraphs and this is an over generalization.
For centuries the Turkmen lived as nomadic herdsmen. Their society was characterized by a distinct economic division between the cattlemen and farmers. This division was present in almost every tribe, settlement, and family. However, seventy years of Soviet rule has virtually eliminated their nomadic life-style. The socialization of farmland has changed their traditional settlement patterns, and movement into the cities has naturally weakened their customs and traditions.
Tribal loyalties continue to have a strong influence over the people. The largest descent group is the tribe, then the clan, then the family. Members of a tribe are bound by a strong sense of family loyalty. Tribal loyalty is reinforced by the fact that the Turkmen will only marry within their tribes. Arranged marriages are common, and families often intermarry to preserve wealth. Although there have been political and economic changes through the years, less changes have occurred in the areas of family life and religion.
The Turkmen are especially known for their brisk trade in the bazaars, where many samples of their handicrafts can be found. Some of these include metal and wooden household utensils, tools, and furniture. Many have also supplemented their income by producing intricately designed carpets. Oil and gas production are the major sources of wealth.
Turkmen tend to be physically strong and easily able to endure the harshness of the environment. They are characterized by their hospitality, sincerity, and trustworthiness; however, they are also known as being hot-headed and revengeful.
Men usually wear baggy trousers, coarse shirts, boots, and wool hats. Women love wearing jewelry, especially anklet and bracelets. They cover their heads with cloth, like turbans that are also adorned with jewelry. Joshua Project
Turkmen literature comprises oral compositions and written texts in old Oghuz Turkic and Turkmen languages. Turkmens have joint claims to a great number of literary works written in Old Oghuz Turkic and Persian (by Seljuks in 11-12th centuries) languages with other people of the Oghuz Turkic origin, mainly of Azerbaijan and Turkey. This works include, but are not limited to the Book of Dede Korkut, Gorogly and others. The medieval Turkmen literature was heavily influenced by Arabic and Persian, and used mostly Arabic alphabet.
There is general consensus, however, that distinctively Turkmen literature originated in 18th century with the poetry of Magtymguly Pyragy, who is considered the father of the Turkmen literature. Other prominent Turkmen poets of that era are Döwletmämmet Azady (Magtymguly's father), Nurmuhammet Andalyp, Abdylla Şabende, Şeýdaýy, Mahmyt Gaýyby and Gurbanaly Magrupy.
Characteristics of traditional Turkmen cuisine are rooted in the largely nomadic nature of day-to-day life prior to the Soviet period coupled with a long local tradition, dating back millennia before the arrival of the Turkmen in the region, of white wheat production. Baked goods, especially flat bread (Turkmen: çörek) typically baked in a tandoor, make up a large proportion of the daily diet, along with cracked wheat porridge (Turkmen: ýarma), wheat puffs (Turkmen: pişme), and dumplings (Turkmen: börek). Since sheep-, goat-, and camel husbandry are traditional mainstays of nomadic Turkmen, mutton, goat meat, and camel meat were most commonly eaten, variously ground and stuffed in dumplings, boiled in soup, or grilled on spits in chunks (Turkmen: şaşlyk) or as fingers of ground, spiced meat (Turkmen: kebap). Rice for plov was reserved for festive occasions. Due to lack of refrigeration in nomad camps, dairy products from sheep-, goat-, and camel milk were fermented to keep them from spoiling quickly. Fish consumption was largely limited to tribes inhabiting the Caspian Sea shoreline. Fruits and vegetables were scarce, and in nomad camps limited mainly to carrots, squash, pumpkin, and onions. Inhabitants of oases enjoyed more varied diets, with access to pomegranate, fig, and stone fruit orchards; vineyards; and of course melons. Areas with cotton production could use cottonseed oil and sheep herders used fat from the fat-tailed sheep. The major traditional imported product was tea. Wikipedia
History Lesson
Türkmens were definitely mentioned near the end of the 10th century A.D in Islamic literature by the Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi in Ahsan Al-Taqasim Fi Ma'rifat Al-Aqalim. In his work, which was completed in 987 A.D, al-Muqaddasi writes about Turkmens twice while depicting the region as the frontier of the Muslim possessions in Central Asia.
Earlier references to Türkmen might be trwkkmˀn (if not trkwmˀn "translator"), mentioned in an 8th century Sogdian letter and 特拘夢 Tejumeng, another name of Sogdia, besides Suyi 粟弋 and Sute 粟特, according to Chinese encylopedia Tongdian. However, even if 特拘夢 might have transcribed Türkmen, these "Türkmens" might be Karluks instead of modern Türkmens' Oghuz-speaking ancestors.
Towards the end of the 11th, in Divânü Lügat'it-Türk (Compendium of the Turkic Dialects), Mahmud Kashgari uses “Türkmen” synonymously with “Oğuz”. He describes Oghuz as a Turkic tribe and says that Oghuz and Karluks were both known as Turkmens.
The modern Turkmen people descend from the Oghuz Turks of Transoxiana, the western portion of Turkestan, a region that largely corresponds to much of Central Asia as far east as Xinjiang. Famous historian and ruler of Khorezm of the XVII century Abu al-Ghazi Bahadur links the origin of all Turkmens to 24 Oghuz tribes in his literary work "Genealogy of the Turkmens".
In the 7th century AD, Oghuz tribes had moved westward from the Altay mountains through the Siberian steppes, and settled in this region. They also penetrated as far west as the Volga basin and the Balkans. These early Turkmens are believed to have mixed with native Sogdian peoples and lived as pastoral nomads until being conquered by the Russians in the 19th century.
Migration of the Turkmen tribes from the territory of Turkmenistan and the rest of Central Asia in the south-west direction began mainly from the 11th century and continued until the 18th century. These Turkmen tribes played a significant role in the ethnic formation of such peoples as Turks, Turkmens of Iraq and Syria, as well as the Turkic population of Iran and Azerbaijan. To preserve their independence, those tribes that remained in Turkmenistan were united in military alliances, although remnants of tribal relations remained until the 20th century. Their traditional occupations were farming, cattle breeding, and various crafts. Ancient samples of applied art (primarily carpets and jewelry) indicate a high level of folk art culture. Wikipedia
And then:
The majority of Turkmen live in Turkmenistan, which is located in south Central Asia along the Caspian Sea. Many others live in the surrounding Asian nations of Kazakhstan, Iran, Afghanistan, and Uzbekistan. Their culture has been strongly influenced in the past by both the Turkic conquerors, who imposed their language on them, and the Arabs, who forced them to convert to Islam. Long ago, they developed a strong ethnic identity as "children of the desert" because they would plunder rich caravans of Persian traders.
In the 17th century, the Turkmen, or Trukhmens as they were called in Russia, migrated into the Caucasus. Turkmen use Russian as their literary language. Joshua Project
What do they believe?
The Turkmen people are largely Muslim. Joshua Project gives us this insight into their religious history
Nestorian Christians entered Turkmenistan in the fourth century A.D.; by the beginning of the fourteenth century, though, any lingering trace of Christianity had been totally replaced by Islam. This transition gradually came to influence the political, civil, and economic lives of the people.
In 1928, the Soviet authorities launched an anti-religious campaign aimed at the complete destruction of Islam among the Turkmen. The campaign was the harshest and most violent of all anti-Islamic attacks in Central Asia. Today, despite the outward conformity to Islam, mysticism and other past religious traditions are still prevalent.
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Turkmen Turkmenistan 08/31/2020 Islam
Lyuli Uzbekistan 08/24/2020 Islam
Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 08/17/2020 Islam*
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


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submitted by HaulA28Augl to u/HaulA28Augl [link] [comments]


2020.08.24 19:42 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Lyuli in Uzbekistan

Sup guys, I accidentally slept till 9 today, so my day is all wonky but I'm sitting in class now so its the perfect time to work on this post right? I always pick massive people groups so here is a smaller one that we can pray for! Meet the Lyuli in Uzbekistan!
Also, I couldn't get the wikipedia articles to link well, so they're bolded instead and you'll just have to trust me, sorry bout it.
How Unreached Are They?
Math is easy but sad today. The Lyuli people are 0% Christian. That means there is maybe (and hopefully) a few believers out of their entire population of 12,000 people.
There are portions of Scripture translated but not an entire bible nor even the New Testament as a whole,
What are they like?
Most of the Lyuli people live in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan or Kyrgyzstan. A smaller number live in Russia. Their language is a dialect of Tajik, a bigger Turkic language.
Lyuli families have clans and sub-clans. They are closed towards anyone outside the Lyuli community, especially since they are not accepted by many of the peoples they meet. They might be better accepted by Tajiks than other Central Asian peoples because of the similar language. Joshua Project
Women do not have an equal status to men in Roma society. They do not have the same rights, but they have many obligations. They have to give birth to many children whether they want to or not — a large family is a way to gain respect among the community, and the first question [women] get is how many children they have. The only chance for female education is before marriage, and that is extremely rare. Particularly because marriages are held at a very young age; girls are married at the age of 14 or 15. Medium
History Lesson
The ancestors of the Lyuli people were probably a caste of singers and dancers who, because of economic hardship, had to move elsewhere. They were scattered to several countries including what is now Uzbekistan. Joshua Project
There are several names for the Lyuli: Jughi, Multani or Luli. However, they refer to themselves as Mugat or Mughat (Persian: مغان‎, derived from Old Persian magi, "fire-worshipper"), as well as Ghurbat (Arabic: غربات‎), which means "lonely". The term Multani signifies a person who originates from the city of Multan (in modern-day Pakistan), because some of the Lyuli emigrated from Multan around 1380 AD. Wikipedia
What do they believe?
The Lyuli people are 100 percent Sunni Muslim.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by 80–90% of the world's Muslims, characterized by a greater emphasis upon the traditions of the prophet and his companions. Its name comes from the word Sunnah, referring to the behaviour of the Islamic prophet Prophet Muhammad. Wikipedia
The Lyuli Roma identify as Sunni Muslims. They observe prayers, as well as all the other religious requirements and celebrations. In lay Muslim society they face discrimination from Uzbeks and Tajiks, who do not consider them “real” Muslims because of pagan elements to their religious practices, their caste system, and worship of fire. The Lyuli community’s understanding of Islam is more about a popular Islamic spiritualism combined with elements of the pre-Islamic past, which remain to this day in the lives of the Lyuli Roma. Medium
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Lyuli Uzbekistan 08/24/2020 Islam
Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 08/17/2020 Islam*
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.08.17 16:24 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Kyrgyz in Kyrgyzstan

Picking the people group with one of the the coolest flags ever today! Went with the largest people group in Kyrgyzstan this week, so, meet the Kyrgyz of Kyrgyzstan!
How Unreached Are They?
The Kyrgyz are 0.09% Christian. For those of us that hate math, that means out of their population of 4,689,000, there are probably only about 4,200 believers in the entire country. That means there is roughly only one believer for ever 1000 non-believers. Gosh, thats such a small number of believers in such a large area.
What are they like?
Typical qualification that all people groups can't be summed up in small paragraphs and this is an over generalization.
Since the land is generally unsuitable for farming, many rural Kyrgyz live as nomadic cattle raisers, following their herds from pasture to pasture. They depend entirely on their animals for survival. Fortunately, they have particularly hardy and adaptable breeds of sheep, goats, yaks, horses, and camels. The animals are used for both food and exchange. They also provide the only means of transportation.
The nomads travel as extended family units and live in portable felt tents, or yurts. The summers are short on the plateau, and there are only about 60 days in which the ground is not covered in snow. During this season, the families tend to camp close together. However, during the winter months, families live scattered away from each other so that they might best utilize the scarce grassland.
The Kyrgyz women enjoy more freedoms than do most other Central Asian women. For example, they are not required to wear veils. They are allowed to talk to men, and they may freely ride about on the grasslands. They work hard, and their position in the household is considered important and respected.
Women are held in high esteem once they are married. However, bride stealing is still in practice in the region. A young man may abduct a single woman off the streets and take her home. Once she has spent one night there, she is presumed to have lost her maidenhood and therefore is unwanted by other men in society. She becomes a "kelin" or a new bride for the first year and she is unable to even speak the name of her father-in-law. She is a live-in servant and expected to get pregnant within the first year. Once she has borne children, she moves up in status. This practice is most common in rural areas, but sometimes women are stolen from the cities and taken to the villages.
The men devote themselves almost entirely to caring for the animals. They dress in baggy leather pants and coarse shirts. Outer coats made of cotton or wool are also worn. Embroidered felt skull caps are common; however, on important occasions, the wealthier men may wear tall steeple-crowned hats made of felt or velvet and embroidered with gold. Their favorite gear includes their belts, saddles, and bridles, which are sometimes covered with gold and precious stones. While the women dress in the same style clothing as the men, their shirts are usually longer and go all the way down to their heels.
Music, dance, and story telling are important parts of the Kyrgyz culture. Verbal folklore has been very well developed over the years. The Krygyz have the longest oral epic in the word entitled "Manas." It contains 100,000 lines of verse. Folk tales are often sung, accompanied by a three-stringed guitar called a dombra.
Among the men, hunting with the use of a golden eagle is very popular, and a well-trained eagle is quite valuable. Joshua Project
Slightly related but this was my favorite picture I could find in my googling this morning
History Lesson
The name "Kyrgyz" means "the descendents of forty maidens." The Kyrgystan flag has forty sun rays to represent the Kyrgyz heritage.
During its 72 years under Communist rule, the Kyrgyz population grew to four times its original size. Hundreds of towns and villages were built as many abandoned their traditional nomadic lifestyles. Nevertheless, the majority of the population is still rural. Joshua Project
What do they believe?
Putting an asterisk by this one because I think they as a people would identify as Muslim, particularly Sunni Muslim, but I really can't tell. They seem to be a fairly secular people group with various traditions they still hold.
Consecutive waves of Islamization have taken place since the Arabs first invaded Talas in 751 when many Kyrgyz tribes were still in Siberia. Northern nomadic tribes were able to skirt many of the Islamic traditions until recently. Within the last two hundred years, the majority had been completely converted to Islam. The present wave of Islamization in Kyrgyzstan is one of the most intense that the north has ever experienced. People who were only Muslim by name are now learning many of the more intricate practices, creeds, and doctrines.
Soviets were never able to change Kyrgyz beliefs, even through they tried a number of methods including changing the alphabet, outlawing religious activity, and propaganda. In fact, since 1990, over 3000 new mosques have been built in Kyrgyzstan.
Today, most Kyrgyz still consider themselves to be Muslim; however, some Shamanistic and Tengrism practices still exist. (Shamanism is the belief that there is an unseen world of many gods, demons, and ancestral spirits. Tegrism is a belief system that coincides with the faith expressed throughout the biblical book of Genesis.) Many people still turn to mediums and seers to cure sickness with magic, communicate with powers, and control events. Almost all Kyrgyz believers have to go through a breaking of demonic powers over their lives once they become Christians.
The Kyrgyz epic hero Manas has taken on god-like status in some parts of Kyrgyzstan. His story reveals many practices and beliefs of pre-Islamic Kyrgyz. There have been some comparisons made between the biblical "Manasseh son of Jacob" (Genesis 48) and the Kyrgyz "Manas son of Jakyb".
A Kyrgyz who becomes a Christian is seen as betraying his identity and family unity. Recently Kyrgyz Christians have faced opposition from Muslims, but with a new twist. Their new strategy is not to persecute Christians, but win them back to Islam through kindness, compassion, sympathy, and shame. Joshua Project
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Kyrgyz Kyrgyzstan 08/17/2020 Islam*
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.08.15 01:53 LeaderOfTheBeavers Weeds ~ Community Re-Watch S05E07 "Where the Sidewalk Ends"

Season 5 Episode 7: Where the Sidewalk Ends
Original Air Date: July 20, 2009

Official Synopsis: Nancy takes her fate into her hands after learning the identity of Esteban's other woman; Doug and Silas are plagued by a troublesome deputy; Celia discovers that getting rich quick isn't easy.

Mod-Made Synopsis: Nancy finds out that Pilar has teeth on her vagina, before finding the birthing room while the creepiest song of all-time plays. Doug continues to drive down the business by eating up all the product and being a generally horrible racist dude to a Tunisian undercover Internal Affairs officer. Nancy offers to give Andy a pregnant pity handjob. Celia starts a job in an MLM and tries to sell “You’re a Raging Narcissist Cosmetics”, but it does not go very well, so she gets a foot massage from Shane. Andy meets Alanis Morissette and falls madly in love with her just like I do every single time I listen to Jagged Little Pill. Nancy pumps out a unit, and the unit has Esteban’s big beautiful brown eyes.

What is your favorite scene in this episode?
What is your favorite piece of dialogue in this episode?
Who is the best character of Season 5 Episode 7?

“Oh god… I still love you… No, I don’t, I don’t. It’s just an obsession, want what I can’t have… I’m so fucked up. Jesus you are poison. FUCK YOU!”
-Andy Botwin
submitted by LeaderOfTheBeavers to WEEDS [link] [comments]


2020.08.10 14:45 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Yakut in Russia

Mornin y'all! Hope y'all are having a wonderful and blessed Missions Monday! Meet the Yakut in Russia
How Unreached Are They?
This is a tricky one. If it wasn't for u/CiroFlexo telling me about this people, I probably would not have picked them at first glance. They are technically 3% Christian which falls outside the bounds of the unreached terms. However, the majority of that would probably be Russian Orthodox so..... Further, only 0.1% of them are evangelical or actively sharing their faith. So on the ground they almost certainly look like a UPG. So let's do math now..
If they are only 0.1% evangelical that means that out of their 488,000 people, there are only 488ish believers who actively are sharing their faith. That's one in a thousand that wants to tell others about Jesus. Thats tragically small for a population that claims to be sort of Russian Orthodox...
There is most of a bible in their language but somehow not all of it.
What are they like?
Typical qualification that all people groups can't be summed up in small paragraphs and this is an over generalization.
The Yakut live uncomplicated, seminomadic lives, tending reindeer and dwelling in simple tents. Alcohol abuse is rampant among the Yakut. In fact, it is so prevalent that the number of murders, early deaths, and suicides attributable to alcohol abuse may seriously jeopardize the future of this small group. Around the world the Yakut are renowned for their strong, hardy, massive Yakut draft horses from Siberia. Joshua Project
The Yakuts engage in animal husbandry, traditionally having focused on rearing horses, mainly the Yakutian horse, reindeer and the Sakha Ynagha (Yakutian cow), a hardy kind of cattle known as Yakutian cattle which is well-adapted to the harsh local weather.
The cuisine of Sakha prominently features the traditional drink kumis, dairy products of cow, mare, and reindeer milk, sliced frozen salted fish stroganina (строганина), loaf meat dishes (oyogos), venison, frozen fish, thick pancakes, and salamat—a millet porridge with butter and horse fat. Kuerchekh [Куэрчэх] or kierchekh, a popular dessert, is made of cow milk or cream with various berries. Indigirka is a traditional fish salad. This cuisine is only used in Yakutia. Wikipedia
History Lesson
The ancestors of Yakuts were Kurykans who migrated from Yenisey river to Lake Baikal and were subject to a certain Mongolian admixture prior to migration in the 7th century. The Yakuts originally lived around Olkhon and the region of Lake Baikal. Beginning in the 13th century they migrated to the basins of the Middle Lena, the Aldan and Vilyuy rivers under the pressure of the rising Mongols. The northern Yakuts were largely hunters, fishermen and reindeer herders, while the southern Yakuts raised cattle and horses.
In the 1620s the Tsardom of Muscovy began to move into their territory and annexed or settled down on it, imposed a fur tax and managed to suppress several Yakut rebellions between 1634 and 1642. The tsarist brutality in collection of the pelt tax (yasak) sparked a rebellion and aggression among the Yakuts and also Tungusic-speaking tribes along the River Lena in 1642. The voivode Peter Golovin, leader of the tsarist forces, responded with a reign of terror: native settlements were torched and hundreds of people were killed. The Yakut population alone is estimated to have fallen by 70 percent between 1642 and 1682, mainly because of smallpox and other infectious diseases.
In the late 1920s through the late 1930s, Yakut people were systematically persecuted, when Joseph Stalin launched his collectivization campaign. It is possible that hunger and malnutrition during this period resulted in a decline in the Yakut total population from 240,500 in 1926 to 236,700 in 1959. By 1972, the population began to recover. Wikipedia
What do they believe?
This one is tricky. I feel like I'm getting mixed signals. So first I'll tell you what my gut tells me, and then I'll let you read the info. So my gut tells me that this is a population who has been "Christianized" but hold onto many of their previous animist traditions. But hear me out, I do not think they are largely Christian nor animist. I think that tradition is what lasts here, and that they are probably nominal even in their animism. So, that does not take away from the fact that they desperately need the Gospel.
The Yakut are shamanists. In the late 1800s anthropologist Waldemar Jochelson vividly described a Yakut religious ceremony: "A shaman has come to heal a sick woman, whose soul has been captured by evil spirits. He has put himself into a trance by inhaling tobacco, dancing, and beating his drum. Now his soul will travel to the spirit world and do battle in order to retrieve the woman's soul and thus restore her. His assistant holds the shaman by a chain so that if he gets lost or trapped in the spirit world he can be pulled back. Some of the flat iron pendants on the shaman's robe represent bird feathers, which allow the shaman's soul to fly. ... As the shaman dances, the noise made by these pieces and by the copper bells and rattles on the robe, as well as the sound of his drum and singing, help summon the spirits." Joshua Project
By the 1820s almost all the Yakuts claimed to have converted to the Russian Orthodox church, but they retained (and still retain) a number of shamanist practices. Wikipedia
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Yakut Russia 08/10/2020 Animism*
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/2020 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/2020 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/2020 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/2020 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/2020 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/2020 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/2020 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/2020 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/2020 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/2020 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/2020 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/2020 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/2020 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/2020 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/2020 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/2020 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/2020 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/2020 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/2020 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/2020 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/2020 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/2020 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/2020 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/2020 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/2020 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/2020 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/2020 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/2020 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/2020 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/2019 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/2019 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/2019 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/2019 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/2019 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/2019 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/2019 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/2019 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/2019 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/2019 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/2019 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/2019 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/2019 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/2019 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/2019 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/2019 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/2019 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/2019 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/2019 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/2019 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/2019 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/2019 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/2019 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/2019 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/2019 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/2019 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/2019 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/2019 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/2019 Islam
Hui China 05/24/2019 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/2019 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.08.03 16:23 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Northern Katang in Laos

Drinking coffee from Laos today and got curious so meet the Northern Katang in Laos!
How Unreached Are They?
The Northern Katang are only 0.08% Christian. That means out of 68,000 people, there are like maybe 50-100 believers out of all of them.
There is not yet a completed Bible in their language.
What are they like?
Typical disclaimer, not all people, overgeneralization, you get it:
The Katang are dispersed over a wide-spread area of southern Laos. The majority live in the Atsaphangthong, Thapangthong, Xanbouri, Phin, Songkhon and Champon districts of Savannakhet Province; the Khongxedon, Ta-Oy, Toumian, Saravan, Laongam and Vapi districts of Saravan Province. Some live in the Xanasom-boun and Pakxong districts of Champasak Province.
In some of the more remote locations, the Katang live in houses made of braided leaves. In recent decades, however, many Katang have moved down from the hills onto the plains, where they have lost much of their cultural heritage and are on the way to assimilation to Lao culture and language.
Some aspects of Katang culture that are presently under threat includes the traditional Katang longhouse. For centuries extended families of Katang have lived under one roof. When they married, the house would be extended to accommodate the new couple and any children they would later have. At Tumlan Village, 40 km north of Saravan township, tourists can still visit a 100 meter (328 feet) long longhouse, which contains thirty different families. Traditional Katang textiles, which feature numerous narrow bands of colors and patterns, are also produced there and sold to the Western and Asian tourists who pass through the area. Joshua Project
History Lesson
Ummm couldnt find any history about the people themselves, but most of them live in one of 3 cities so here is the history of one of those cities:
Prehistoric human occupation is evidenced by the first stone tools in the province, dating back between 100,000 and 12,000 years. The first bronze tools date to 2000 BCE. The region was then the center of the Sikhottabong Kingdom. The much-venerated Pha That Sikhottabong stupa is on the grounds of a 19th-century monastery in Thakhek. Sikhottabong was an important kingdom in ancient Indo-China. Its capital was in the north-west of the province, in the present village of Meuang Kabong, on the eastern shores of the Banghiang River, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of the Mekong. Other centers of the kingdom were in Viang Chan, Khammuan, Nong Khai, and Udon. Khmer Empire ruins dating to 553 and 700 CE have been found at Heuan Hin. wikipedia
What do they believe?
Traditional Katang animism includes a belief in many forest spirits and many taboos meant to avoid disturbing them have developed over the centuies. One of the most revered spirits inlcudes the house spirit which is said to inhabit every house. wikipedia
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Northern Katang Laos 08/03/20 Animism
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/20 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/20 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/20 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/20 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/20 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/20 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/20 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/20 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/20 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/20 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/20 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/20 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/20 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/20 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/20 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/20 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/20 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/20 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/20 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/20 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/20 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/20 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/20 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/20 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/20 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/20 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/20 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/20 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/19 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/19 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/19 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/19 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/19 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/19 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/19 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/19 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/19 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/19 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/19 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/19 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/19 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/19 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/19 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/19 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/19 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/19 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/19 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/19 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/19 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/19 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/19 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/19 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/19 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/19 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/19 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/19 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/19 Islam
Hui China 05/24/19 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/19 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.07.27 22:21 TheIpleJonesion [EPILOGUE] The Past 50 Years- A Lecture on Modern Tunisian History

The Past 50 Years- A Lecture on Modern Tunisian History by Professor Bab El Bab (University of Tunisia)
(This lecture has been translated from the original Arabic)
Modern Tunisian history, as most of you know, began on December 17th, 2010, when the martyr Tarek el-Tayeb Mohamed Bouazizi set himself on fire to protest the Zine El Abidine Ben Ali regime. His death sparked the December Revolution which ended autocracy in Tunisia and began our democracy. Bouazizi is important for sparking the Arab Spring as well, but we shall step aside from that.
After 28 days of protests, the December or Jasmine revolution was successful. Ben Ali resigned, and Tunisia became a democracy. The process of writing a constitution was stalled in 2013, but resolved by the miraculous Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet, which won a Nobel Prize in Peace for their efforts.
I do not intend to bore you by lecturing you with names and dates. The Presidents of Tunisia are, no doubt, well known to you anyway. Let us suffice to say that whether the next fifty years of Tunisia came from the moderate islamists, the liberals, or the social democrats, they worked tirelessly to uphold democracy and preserve the system of good order we had built in Tunisia. Today, if anything, we are deluged with too much democracy in Tunisia, as the third election in five years shows.
The next great event in Tunisia must be the National Solar Transition. An unthinkable occurrence, it was. In just 10 years, the entire nation, through self-resolve, determination, and Tunisian ingenuity converted to an almost entirely green power grid, and even exported green power to Europe. The solar panels they developed are now the model world over for developing and middle-income nations. Not as efficient as, say, Canadian or Israeli models, they are cheap, durable, and hold up well in sandstorms and with little maintenance. Tunisian manufacturing exports them to countries as close as the United Federated Libyan States and the Free Republic of Egypt to countries as far away as the Indian Union and the Allied Islands of the South Pacific. During the Ares and Frontier missions to Mars, Tunisian solar power was the basis for many of the solar systems used there.
Following the Tunisian National Solar Transition, we enter the era of the Tunisian National Space Agency. Over the course of 14 years, from 2031 to 2045, Tunisia developed three classes of rockets- the medium altitude test rockets of the Khamon class, the low altitude payload-bearing rockets of the Ifri class, and finally, the medium altitude payload bearing rockets of the Saeudanaan class. As well, Tunisia built the famous Al-Amin launch base and spaceport in Southern Tunisia, and has recently sent an astronaut, Mahmoud Al-Ali, to space on the latest European Da Vinci mission.
The final period of Democratic Tunisia I will discuss with you all today is the period of closer integration with Europe, which we now inhabit, and have for the past 16 years. Tunisia had already signed the Tunisia-European Union Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area in 2020. In 2035, Tunisia entered into close partnership with the European Space Agency. In 2045, Tunisia unilaterally entered the Eurozone along with most of North and West Africa by joining the Euro-backed Pan-African Rand. In 2050, Tunisians secured visa-free travel, education, and stays of up to a year in Europe and vice versa. Though Tunisia will never truly join the European Federation, many hope that Tunisia can act as Europe’s closest and best ally in Africa, and come as close to full membership as possible without ever passing that threshold.
Tunisia’s last 50 years have transformed us from a lower-middle income nation to an upper-middle income nation. They have transformed us from a gas and coal burning power to a solar superpower. They have transformed us from a closed autocracy to a thriving democracy. They have transformed us from an illiberal and isolationist state to a proud liberal actor on the world stage. My fellow Tunisians, the last 50 years have made us a nation worthy to be proud of.
submitted by TheIpleJonesion to GlobalPowers [link] [comments]


2020.07.27 16:57 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - Uyghurs in Kazahkstan

Well, I have already done this people group before but I was told I should do them by u/Psalm11814 so here is the same people group but in Kazakhstan! Meet the Uyghurs (Uighurs) in Kazakhstan!
How Unreached Are They?
The Uyghurs in Kazakhstan are 0.01% Christian. That means out of their population of nearly 340,000 only around 30 believers. That means there is only one believer for every 10,000 nonbelievers.
There is a completed Bible in their language!
What are they like?
Traditionally, Uighurs were shepherds and oasis farmers. Today, however, many are involved in businesses such as manufacturing, mining, oil drilling, trading, and transportation. One can easily see that their diet has been greatly influenced by their rural past. Meat is eaten at every meal, and dairy products are enjoyed daily. The Uighur love to drink tea with milk. Their staple foods also include noodles and round bread made from maize or wheat flour.
The typical Uighur house is square. It includes skylights, and a flat roof that is used for drying grains and fruits. Bed frames are low to the ground, and made of bricks so that they can be heated. They are used for both sleeping and sitting. Wall carpets are often used to decorate the home.
Various political, religious, and ethnic conflicts have characterized the history of the Uighurs. Nevertheless, they are still described as being a proud, happy, and independent people. They possess a unique blend of cultural elegance all their own. While remaining isolated enough to preserve their rural simplicity, they successfully made many contacts with other cultures. Such a rare mixture of simplicity and sophistication has given the Uighur a unique and obvious charm.
Singing and dancing are important social activities among the Uighur. They play stringed, wind, and percussion instruments. The Mukam (Twelve Great Melodies) have been part of the Uighur culture for many centuries.
Uighur men usually wear long robes that have distinctive collars. The robes are fastened on the right side and have long waist bands. The village women wear loose- sleeved, one-piece dresses covered with black vests. Today, however, it is becoming more common for those living in cities to wear western style clothing.
The Uighur of Central Asia play an important role in the lives of the Chinese Uighur who are struggling to gain their independence. For example, they often help by smuggling needed materials into China. In China there is evidence of much hostility, bitterness, hurt, and mistrust between the Uighur and the Han Chinese. Joshua Project
Many Uyghurs in Kazakhstan have fled from China and recount their stories here
History Lesson
Uighur literally means "united" or "allied." For centuries, the Uighur were an important link between China and the rest of the world. They lived along the silk road and worked as caravan drivers transporting Chinese goods. The strategic location of their homes allowed them to be the commercial "middlemen" between the Orient and Europe. Joshua Project
And this
The Uighurs have deep roots in the region, descending from the ancient Sogdian traders once observed by Marco Polo. Unlike many of the nomadic tribes of Central Asia, the Uighurs are an urban people whose identity crystallized in the oasis towns of the Silk Road. A walk through the bazaars of old Uighur centers such as Kashgar, Khotan or Yarkhand reveals the physical legacy of a people rooted along the first trans-contintental trade route. Time
What do they believe?
Islam has been the dominant religion of the Uighurs since the tenth century. In the past, they were Muslim in name only; however, there is some renewal that is currently taking place among them. Today, virtually all of the Uighur in Kazakstan claim to be Hanafite Muslims. Joshua Project
For those who don't know
The Hanafi school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh). It is named after the scholar Abū Ḥanīfa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit (d. 767), a tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani. Wikipedia
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Uyghur Kazakhstan 07/27/20 Islam
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/20 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/20 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/20 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/20 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/20 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/20 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/20 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/20 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/20 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/20 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/20 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/20 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/20 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/20 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/20 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/20 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/20 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/20 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/20 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/20 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/20 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/20 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/20 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/20 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/20 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/20 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/20 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/19 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/19 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/19 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/19 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/19 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/19 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/19 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/19 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/19 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/19 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/19 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/19 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/19 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/19 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/19 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/19 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/19 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/19 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/19 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/19 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/19 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/19 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/19 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/19 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/19 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/19 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/19 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/19 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/19 Islam
Hui China 05/24/19 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/19 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.07.26 00:42 LegionOfTheRearguard Faisal Sdiri- Son of the Sea

Basic Info

Name: Faisal Sdiri
Nickname/Alias: None
Date of Birth: April 13, 2004
Hometown: Sfax, Tunisia
Age: 16
Gender: Male
Sexuality: Complicated, mostly heterosexual
Godly Parent: Poseidon, God of the Sea
Mortal Parent: Commander Khadija Sdiri
Zodiac Sign: Aries
Theme: Drowned- The Who

Appearance

Eye color: Dark Brown
Hairstyle: His hair is kept short and neat.
Height: 5'10"
Physique: Faisal is athletic, having grown up running and practicing swordsmanship.
Face Claim: David Mazouz

Combat and Godly Information

Claimed: Yes
Powers:
Aquatic Adaptation: He can breathe and see underwater, and is resistant to water pressure and the low temperatures under the surface, though if he goes deep enough she will freeze/get crushed.
Aquatic Animal Lordship: Faisal can speak with aquatic animals, such as fish, whales, seals, etc. He can also command them, but more intelligent animals like whales and dolphins are more likely to resist his influence. He can also communicate with undersea monsters, but has no ability to control them.
Crushing Depth- He can generate a twenty foot aura around him which causes people to feel the incredible pressure of the deep ocean. This makes people's ears pop and makes them feel as if intense weight is being pressed down on them, and if he maintains it long enough, it could potentially cause their eardrums to burst, but maintaining the aura is incredibly taxing on his energy.
Weapon of Choice: A Celestial Bronze Tuareg-style sword called Abyss, which collapses into a worry stone.

Additional Information

Alignment: Lawful Neutral
Personality: ISTJ
Positive Traits
Negative Traits

Backstory:

Faisal was born at the Tunisian Navy base in Sfax to an officer named Khadija Sidiri, and was raised from a young age with the expectation that he would follow his mother and grandfather into the military, which caused him to develop an inflexible and rigid mindset, which often caused him to come into conflict with his peers. He was told at the age of ten that his father was Poseidon, though he wasn't officially claimed until he was thirteen. He was not sent to attend camp, however, until increasing monster attacks after his sixteenth birthday made it impossible for him to stay in Tunisia. He disagreed with his mother's decision to send him to camp, but once she made up her mind, it was impossible to argue with him. However, he keeps most information about himself private, so the others at camp are unlikely to learn much about him very quickly.

Now:

Faisal glanced back at the car in mild distaste. The driver from the diplomatic mission in New York had asked far too many questions during the drive, specifically about why the grandson of an admiral was attending camp on the tip of Long Island. Those were questions that Faisal hadn't been prepared to answer, so most of the ride had been spent in uncomfortable silence. Faisal made his way up the hill, clutching his suitcase in one hand and muttering softly to himself in Arabic.
submitted by LegionOfTheRearguard to DemigodFiles [link] [comments]


2020.07.20 23:53 parl8veve Dating a Tunisian girl living in Europe

Hi, I am a European guy who has recently started dating a girl from Tunisia. She has been living in Europe since four years. Things are going very nicely in terms of conversation, things done together and so forth. The only thing is that I noticed she is a bit shy (i.e. I always have to make the move) when it comes to physical romance (I'm talking about kissing, so far). Any advice on how to make her feel comfortable? I will talk to her for sure about this, but I'd like to get an idea about the expectations and taboos. To my eyes she is very European in her attitude, but it's the first time I date a person from a north African country, so that's why I am asking. Thanks for your help!
submitted by parl8veve to Tunisia [link] [comments]


2020.07.20 16:42 partypastor Sort of Unreached People Group of the Week - Syrians (Levant Arabs) in Syria

On a refugee kick for some reason this week (shut up other mods), just finished a great book called A New Odyssey, which was excellent. Because of that, I wanted to take the week to pray for Syrians. Many are refugees, but today we pray for those still in Syria for whatever reason. So, introducing the Syrians (Levant Arabs) of Syria!
How unreached are they?
So this is tricky. I'm super convinced that Joshua Project is wrong here but I don't have other data to back up my suspicions. So, according to JP, they are not technically unreached but minimally reached. They are supposedly 6% Christian, however they are only 0.16% evangelical [see bottom of post for link to definitions like evangelical in this specific context]. So what does that mean? It means that there are maybe 1 believer for every 16 unbelieving Syrians. Again, I am convinced its more complex and striated than that. Nevertheless, let's look at what the evangelical numbers are for a better idea. There is very roughly 1 evangelical believer for every 625 nonbelievenot open believer. I feel like this number may be much more accurate. That means out of their population of 11,000,000, there are roughly only 17600 evangelical believers.
There is some portions of Scripture translated in their language but not a full Bible.
What are they like?
As with all large people groups, this is just a broad overview and not meant to be taken to perfectly describe an entire people
The Levant Arabs typically live in villages located near fertile regions; but they can also be found near mountain foothills in less arid regions. Although they have settled in towns or villages, they have held on to their tribal affiliations.
The various tribes are ruled by sheiks (Arab chiefs that are considered to be experts in Islam and in relating to the outside world). Their fortress-like villages can be easily defended. Each house has windows on all sides and is built facing the outside of the village. All goods and persons passing through town are strictly controlled.
Individual dwellings tend to be elaborately decorated, flat-roofed homes called "town houses." Lime wash and brickwork are used around the windows as a form of artistic design. The rooms usually have some type of carpeting, and when entering the house, one must leave his shoes at the door. The walls are lined with mattresses and cushions to sit on and lean against. A main reception room and a kitchen are located on the top floor. The flat roofs are used by the women for drying laundry.
Social life is very important to Arabs. They like to share a daily coffee time by sitting on the floor and drinking coffee from cups without handles. Their diet basically consists of wheat bread and porridge made with boiled meat or chicken.
Despite Islamic teachings, the reality of different classes of Arabs still persists. The type of clothing worn has become one of the determining factors. Levant tribesmen dress differently than other villagers and can be easily recognized. The women wear veils both in town and at home. Boys show that they are becoming men by changing their headgear and wearing daggers.
In spite of the fact that some Muslims are allowed to have up to four wives, most marriages among the Levant Arabs are monogamous. In the past, all marriages were arranged by the parents; however, it is becoming more acceptable for young people to choose their own mates. Young girls are considered ready for marriage by age nine.
In recent years, many of the Levant Arab nomads have settled into mountain villages where they now raise grains, vegetables, coffee, melons, dates, mangoes, and pomegranates. Domestic animals are kept to supply milk and eggs.
At the present time, there are only a few Christians within the Levant Arab community, with the largest number found among the Iraqi Arabs. Evangelization efforts among these tribes are challenging due to restrictions in many of the countries, as well as general antagonism towards Christianity. Prayerful intercession is the key to reaching them with the Gospel.
Joshua Project
History Lesson
The Levant Arabs originally settled all over the Arabian Peninsula and later migrated to North Africa. Today, several hundred thousand Levant Arabs live along the northern edges of the Arabian Desert. They are spread from Israel to Kuwait and as far east as Iran. "Levant" is a broad term that includes several groups of Arabs: the Jordanian, Palestinian, Iraqi, Chaldean, and Syrian Arabs.
Arabs from the Arabian Peninsula are considered to be the original Arabs. The Arabian culture was developed by tribes of nomads and villagers who lived in the Arabian Desert for many centuries. It was also from there that Arab migrations began, eventually leading to the expansion of the Arab world.
The Levant Arabs have had a close association with Islam throughout much of their history, and today, nearly all of them except for the Jewish Arabs are Muslims. The two main branches of Islam in the region are the Shi'ites and Shafiites. Most Levant Arabs speak an Arabic language called Arabiya, with varying local dialects. Others speak an Arabic language known as Mashriqi. Joshua Project
What do they believe?
Almost all Levant Arabs are Muslims. Islam is a religion of works that is based on five basic "pillars." (1) A Muslim must affirm that "there is no god but Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet." (2) He must pray five times a day while facing Mecca. (3) He must give generously. (4) He must fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim year. (5) He must try to make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca in his lifetime.
Islam has greatly influenced the lives of the Levant Arabs. To preserve their people, they are only allowed to marry those inside their own group. Levant Arab society is patrilineal, which means that inheritances are passed down through the males. In this system, boys inherit more than girls. Since children are considered a family's greatest asset, females are valued for their ability to bear children. Joshua Project
How can we pray for them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Syrian (Levant Arabs) Syria 07/20/20 Islam
Teda Chad 07/06/20 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/20 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/20 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/20 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/20 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/20 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/20 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/20 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/20 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/20 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/20 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/20 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/20 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/20 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/20 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/20 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/20 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/20 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/20 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/20 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/20 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/20 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/20 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/20 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/20 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/20 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/19 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/19 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/19 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/19 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/19 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/19 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/19 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/19 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/19 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/19 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/19 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/19 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/19 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/19 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/19 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/19 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/19 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/19 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/19 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/19 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/19 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/19 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/19 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/19 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/19 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/19 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/19 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/19 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/19 Islam
Hui China 05/24/19 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/19 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


2020.07.20 03:33 Person21323231213242 Prediction: If current trends continue, Lebanon will collapse soon with its current deepening crisis. The shockwaves of this collapse will have a significant domino effect, causing conflicts to erupt throughout the region.



Note: This is a repost to a prediction I made to markmywords. It has been slightly changed for the sake of adding it to this subreddit. Despite the fact that prediction posts are rare on this subreddit, I assumed that with the predictions flair it would be acceptable for this subreddit. If this post doesn't belong on the subreddit, please let me know and it will be deleted.
A link to that original post is here:
https://www.reddit.com/MarkMyWords/comments/hsmspw/mmw_lebanon_will_collapse_soon_with_its_current/
TL;DR: See the title, and skip the next seven paragraphs to get directly to my predictions. This is as those paragraphs only work to explain why I believe my predictions will come to pass.

Recently, it seems that in the middle east there also have been some recent events which could cause some serious consequences for that region. Most notably in the small country of Lebanon. Here on collapse we mostly talk about the problems of the US and the broader western world. But due to the potential severity of consequences from these events I believe that they are worthy of this subreddit. To start, as it seems in recent weeks Lebanon has found itself in deep economic woes. 50% of its populace live in poverty right now and the system is riddled with corruption. Electricity blackouts occur for 20 hours a day in many parts of the country. The Covid-19 pandemic lockdown has hit the economy hard and their currency has slid 80% in value since October. At this point Lebanon's only true hope is an IMF loan - which itself is unlikely to work as such loans have been given to no true avail (due to corruption). Mass starvation has even become a possibility. Not only this, but even before the pandemic the people already loathed the government and riots occurred in late 2019- early 2020. Now that the populace has effectively lost everything they've had to lose, their anger has and will turn to the government and its backer Hezbollah. Despite the virus, already this anger has reappeared amongst the populace. Banks are already being targeted by molotovs and civil strife has begun. It is only a matter of time at this point before the populace rises up to overthrow the government. Sure, Lebanon's largest military bloc Hezbollah is strong and has many members. But, it is doubtful that they will be able to suppress a huge chunk of the populous in their current situation. The Lebanese government itself seems to be in an even worse situation than that.
However, the thing is that the Lebanese government/Hezbollah will probably not be destroyed immediately. This is because Lebanon lies within Iran's sphere of influence and its proximity to Israel makes it a valuable asset to Iran. As such, the Iranian government will attempt to prop up whatever is left of the government/hezbollah. However, Iran itself is going through an economic crisis and a second wave of coronavirus so it will not be as able to help Hezbollah as it would have been prior to covid-19. As such, it is likely that the Iranians will only be able to keep hezbollah functional in muslim majority regions rather than in control of Lebanon.
Another reason why the Lebanese government will likely be unable to take back full control over the country is Israel. The thing is that Israel as Iran's main adversary has a goal of keeping Iranian proxies off of its border. This is apparent through its constant bombardment of Iran backed Syria and demands that Iran forces/proxies leave Syria & Lebanon. As such if a revolution were to break out in Lebanon, Israel would certainly support it. Such a situation has actually happened before as in the first Lebanese civil war (1975 - 1990), they indeed did back Maronite Christian militias as a way to counteract the influence of the Iran backed Syrian government and Hezbollah in the region. But, this strength for any rebellion could also prove to be a strength for Hezbollah. This is as it could blame much of the crisis on Israeli meddling and get at least some members of the Lebanese public to join their side. With Israel soon to annex parts of the west bank, Hezbollah could catch Israel on two fronts with palestinian opposition sure to occur in the west bank.
But the thing is that unlike the first Lebanese civil war, it is likely that in this case the war could spillover into other countries. Namely, Iraq and Syria. The reason is that Iraq,Syria and Lebanon all have at least somewhat intertwined economies nowadays and face roughly the same problems as one another. Both have experienced significant economic woes in recent months (Syria more so than Iraq) and all are within the Iranian sphere of influence. The vast majority of Iraq's population have turned against Iran and Syria's populace has experienced significant hardship in recent years. Iraq's government may have made some steps against these issues, but it seems to have been too little too late - not to mention that its reformist PM is mostly stonewalled by bureaucracy. So once a successful revolution occurs in Lebanon - the people of both countries may very well follow Lebanon's example in sparking revolutions against their governments. After all, that is exactly what happened during the Arab spring when the successful Tunisian revolution inspired others across the arab world. Such a successive collapse of governments would probably occur from west to east, as Syria's government is more unstable than Iraq's at the moment. Consequences of these collapses could prove to be quite massive. The first one would be that ISIS would have an opening to rise above being an insurgency and stake claim to land again. They might take over some areas of Iraq and Syria - which itself would result in more resources for the group to work with and as such make it more capable of launching attacks elsewhere. Another is that even now, there still are some baathists in Sunni-majority parts of Iraq. They too might gain influence and legitimacy for their cause. Sure, it is unlikely that Baathists could takeover all of Iraq, but even if they create a rump state in Northwestern Iraq they still could change the geopolitics of the region. Finally, seeing how Sunnis and Shias have been at odds in Iraq for such a long time, it is likely that once the chaos settles down Iraq will split along sectarian lines. A similar thing might happen in Syria, with the Druze and Alawites both being historically oppressed by Sunni Arabs. With Assad gone, neither will want to feel this oppression again and as such they will probably secede from Syria. However, with the Alawites occupying a strategic location on the coast and being the ethnic group of Syrian President Bashar al Assad, it is likely that in the case of a Syrian collapse Russia will secure an Alawite protectorate on the coast of Syria. And depending on if the Russian government believes it necessary to stake control of Syria yet again, they may go further.
Outside of Iraq and Syria, the surrounding region also has a few more conflicts which could spark with the collapses of Iraq,Syria and Lebanon. The first one I will mention is the Kurdish conflict for independence. This is because once Iraq collapses, the Kurdish autonomous authority (or KRG) will probably declare independence yet again. Such an event will occur because said authority now acts as the most developed part of Iraq, and it did attempt to declare independence back in 2017. With Iraq gone, the kurds there will have nothing stopping them from declaring independence. Even though this may not seem to be a big issue, it comes with one major consequence. This is as Kurds and their homeland Kurdistan extends beyond Northern Iraq & Syria, but also into nearby Turkey and Iran. With the former being quite harsh to their respective kurdish minority, there has been an ongoing Kurdish insurgency there for the past 40 years. Even though it may not be as intense as it was in the past, the successful creation of a Kurdish state just across the border could easily reignite this insurgency as it would prove that the insurgent's goals were achievable. Sure, the KRG itself has allowed the Turkish government to weed out insurgents within their territory, but many kurds there are sympathetic to the cause of creating a united kurdish state. So with the disappearance of any Iraqi influence in the region, it will become easier for the insurgents to gain supplies from sympathizers across the border. Not only that, but with the disappearance of Iraqi influence over the KRG, it is likely that more and more Kurdish nationalists will enter the Kurdistan parliament as national pride sets in. With such a change, it is likely that over time the Kurdish parliament will slowly begin to turn against Turkey in favor of supporting the insurgents. As such, this may cause heightened conflict between these Kurds and Turkey. And as long as the Kurdish insurgents keep their image fairly intact, they may very well achieve Kurdish independence from Turkey.
Another conflict which may surge is the Balochistan insurgency in Iran and Pakistan. For the past 70 years the baloch people have been attempting to gain independence from Iran and Pakistan. Right now the insurgency is quite low level. But, the thing is that if Iran's allies in Arabia start collapsing, the balochs in Iran will be emboldened. After all, it is far easier to recruit for a rebel movement when their goals seem achievable. As such, within months of Lebanon's collapse there probably will be a resurgent Balochi independence movement in Iran's Balochistan & Sistan province. And once such an insurgency becomes prevalent in Iranian Balochistan, it will almost certainly begin to spill over into Pakistani Balochistan. Such an occurrence could cause geopolitical turbulence as with Pakistan having a constant border-dispute with India, it is likely that India would support the Balochi insurgents if their activities intensify in Pakistan. If India does that, that itself would cause the Balochi insurgency to intensify further and result in deeper rifts between nations in the region. With nearby border-regions of unstable Afghanistan also having a majority Baloch population - even if the Iranian and Pakistani armies are able to drive Baloch insurgents out of their territories, these insurgents could simply retreat into Southern Afghanistan to regroup. As such, the conflict itself could take years to settle down again, especially with Indian support.
This conflict may be the most unlikely here, but in my opinion it is likely that with a kurdistan conflict, it is likely that Armenia & Azerbaijan will get involved in such a crisis. The reasons for this stem from way back during the Armenian genocide. Back then, the Ottoman predecessor of modern Turkey exterminated the Armenians of Western Armenia believing them to be collaborating with the Russian empire. Even though the Ottomans have been long dead and Western Armenia is now integrated into Turkey, there is still one part of Western Armenia which Armenians yearn for. This is the mountain of Ararat (Or rather, the twin Ararat mountains). Mount Ararat is the national symbol of Armenia and Armenians even call it their "Holy mountain" . Ari.L.Goldman once noted that "In most Armenian homes in the modern diaspora, there are pictures of Mount Ararat, a bittersweet reminder of the homeland and national aspirations."[138]. And yet, Ararat is currently a part of Turkey. As such, if a kurdish rebellion flares up across Eastern Turkey, it is very likely that the Armenian government will take their chance to take the mountain and other historical Armenian sites (mostly just ruins of old Armenian capitals) along the Turco-Armenian border. Sure, such an action would be incredibly risky. Turkey is in NATO after all - and could have called in the support of NATO under article 5 in normal times. However, we live in incredibly volatile times which have completely changed the dynamic of geopolitics. The US may have stabilized its economy after the March/April COVID stock market crash but this stabilization seems to be merely temporary - seeing how another nation-wide lockdown seems to be on the horizon with the rising cases. Soon their stock market will crash yet again. With the US's influence on the world stage, its American and European allies will also feel the brunt of a new recession. In such a crisis, they will not be keen on helping a far off ally fight an insignificant war - let alone Turkey, the one which has had the worst relationship with the US out of its old-world allies. With the Kurdish rebellion, Turkey itself will have bigger worries to deal with other than losing some eastern borderlands. Turkey's biggest loss would be their land connection to Azerbaijan - their closest ally. Not only that, but seeing Ararat's significance to the Armenian public, occupying it would be a very popular ordeal. The current government of Armenia could raise its popularity significantly if it were to claim Ararat. As such, the conditions are surprisingly in Armenia's favor. The whole operation will take a matter of hours to complete, seeing that Ararat is only 20 miles from the Armenian border and the historic capitals are even closer. Not to mention that Ararat is surrounded by Kurdish majority territory, which would probably already be in revolt. It could easily be given the excuse of "securing Armenian borders from chaos". Turkey might do some saber rattling, but if the Kurds would be in full revolt there would be nothing they could do about it However, these conditions would only work if the Kurds enter a full scale revolt. With Turkey's huge army, if such a scenario does not occur, the Armenians would be defeated easily and occupied by Turkey. Assuming that such a Kurdish rebellion does occur, Armenia still would have one additional contender to deal with - Azerbaijan. After an incident in which 16 Azeri soldiers were killed, a large amount of Azeri citizens have called for a new war with Armenia (https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-53415693). Since than incident, both sides have been engaging in clashes. As such, it is likely that Azerbaijan and Armenia might go to war yet again. With Azerbaijan being Turkey's closest ally, even if Armenia doesn't attempt to claim Mt Ararat - Turkey will support the Azeris. With Azerbaijan itself being significantly larger than Armenia, it may seem that Armenia wouldn't take any chances with taking Ararat, even if good circumstances arise so that all available troops can help fight Azerbaijan. But, the reason why such a war may actually make claiming Mt. Ararat more likely is because Ararat lies directly to the west of Turkey's land connection to Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan enclave. As such, supplies directed from Turkey to Azerbaijan will probably need to go through this area to reach Azerbaijan. In the case of a kurdish rebellion Turkey probably wouldn't use this corridor much - however after it would be inevitably put down Turkey would probably use this corridor to give Azerbaijan supplies.So, if Turkey is ravaged by a large Kurdish rebellion, Armenia will need to secure this region for the sake of preventing Turkey from giving supplies directly to Azerbaijan once the rebels are defeated. Seeing these influences, I believe it is likely that Armenia will enter the conflict.
Based on these factors, here is a bullet list of events on how events might transpire when it comes to the collapse of Lebanon and its consequences. Keep in mind, this includes all the potential locations written about earlier (the Caucasus, Lebanon,Iraq, Syria and Balochistan) and is only based on the current, incomplete perspective of the present. As such, this only includes things which could be predicted, and the events are only placed in and order which I believe makes sense. In reality, they could occur in different orders and many events I have not predicted could very well occur. Some might not even occur at all. As such, I am not including specific dates into this list of events.:
  1. Lebanon's present crisis continues to worsen, the people become even more restless.
  2. Impoverished individuals begin to protest en mass - violence becomes commonplace
  3. Riots ensue across Lebanon.
  4. The government attempts to fight back against the protestors. This simply radicalizes them
  5. Some soldiers/police officers join the protestors - providing weapons to the movement.
  6. A leader emerges amongst the protestors. They declare war on the Lebanese government.
  7. Radicalized protestors assault a weapons depot. Through sheer numbers (and with heavy casualties), they break in and take the weapons.
  8. Civil war commences - the Lebanese public begins to capture towns along the coast. Lebanese defences begin to collapse.
  9. Iran begins to send as much supplies as it can to Lebanon - mostly to no avail.
  10. Israel begins to support the rebel's cause.
  11. Israel begins its annexation of the west bank.
  12. As a last ditch attempt to stop the rebellion, Hezbollah blames Israel for the crisis and starts a war with them. At this point, the writing would be on the wall that Hezbollah would be destroyed, so such an action would work as a final act of defiance against Israel & an instigator for Palestinian revolts in Israel. It also would act as a way to discredit the rebellion at least a bit.
  13. Palestinian rebels begin to rise up in the west bank.
  14. The rebel's progress is halted for a time but Israel becomes directly involved in the war.
  15. Beirut is captured by the rebels.
  16. Hezbollah and the Lebanese government enter full rout, only holding on in select pockets in Eastern Lebanon.
  17. Lebanese rebels declare the formation of a new Lebanese government.
  18. Palestinian rebels are thoroughly squashed by the Israeli military. The west bank is entirely annexed by Israel.
  19. With the collapse of Lebanon, Syria's economy begins to suffer massively.
  20. Iran threatens war with Israel over the situation.
  21. Iran convinces Syria to intervene in Lebanon.
  22. Syria directly enters the war in Lebanon to prevent a total end to the Lebanese government.
  23. With support from Israel, the Lebanese rebels begin to spread into parts of Syria directly north of Lebanon. Locals begin to support these rebels.
  24. Similarly to the Arab spring, by some chain reaction the details of which are not yet apparent, copycats sympathetic to the Lebanese cause rise up in Syria and Iraq.
  25. The Syrian and Iraqi governments alongside Iran backed militias will attempt to fight these groups, but in the end both will collapse (to make a long story short). Syria will fall first due to its more severe instability.
  26. Sectarian conflict breaks out all over Syria and Iraq
  27. The Baloch insurgency begins to intensify - with the Balochs using the opportunity to take advantage of Iran's weakness.
  28. Iran will attempt to fight back against these rebels, but will probably be only able to maintain hold on the Shiite regions of Iraq.
  29. Russia will attempt to stop the collapse, but they will be too late to prevent it. Russian troops will establish an Alawite state along the coast, but the remainder of Syria would become too much of a hassle to reconquer.
  30. The kurds in Northern Iraq declares independence from Iraq to escape the crisis.
  31. The new Kurdish state in Northern Iraq takes over Kurdish majority lands to its south taken by Iraq during the brief 2017 KRG-Iraq conflict. The most important of these territories is the city of Kirkuk.
  32. The new Kurdish state in Northern Iraq begins to align with the YPG of Syria.
  33. The resurgence of Baloch rebellion extends into Pakistan.
  34. A surge in violence in Turkish Kurdistan occurs as local Kurdish independence groups attempt to gain independence following the example of the new kurdish state.
  35. India begins to support the Balochs in the name of weakening Pakistan.
  36. Pakistan threatens war on India over supporting the Balochs - leads to some saber rattling but nothing more.
  37. The Baloch rebels begin to move into Afghanistan.
(Note: Events after this point are far less likely to occur - but if they do, they will occur after the 37 events listed earlier)
  1. Kurdish rebels gain momentum in Turkey.
  2. Kurdish rebels begin to claim territory (mostly rural towns) as their rebellion grows.
  3. Armenia claims Mount Ararat (alongside its surrounding area) and the ruins of some former Armenian capitals along the border. The Armenian government initially claims that this operation is for the sake of protecting the Armenian border from the Kurdish insurgency, but after some time it begins assimilating the occupied area into Armenia.
At this point, we would have reached a bit too far into the future to concretely predict anything about what happens. But here are a few (out of many) potential endings:
  1. Russia launches an offensive from the Alawite regions into the rest of Syria. They reclaim Syria and Lebanon as parts of their sphere of influence. Iraq is reclaimed as part of Iran's sphere of influence while the Kurds and Balochs are stamped out. Iran has to accept the loss Syria and Lebanon from its sphere of influence while gaining a far more significant hold on Iraq.
  2. Lebanese rebels maintain control over Lebanon while Syria and Iraq are split along ethnic lines. Balochi and Kurd rebels are stamped out, so no border changes occur outside of Lebanon,Iraq and Syria.
  3. ISIS reemerges in Syria & Iraq as a result of the collapse of said nations and is able to defeat all other warring factions. Lebanon, Syria and Iraq fall under ISIS control. Without a friendly Kurdish state across the border, the Kurdish insurgency in Turkey does not intensify. Balochs might still rise up, however and may or may not win.
  4. Hezbollah is able to hold on in Muslim majority regions of Lebanon. Over time, the Lebanese civil war becomes more and more sectarian as the rebels become an overwhelmingly Christian movement and Hezbollah comes to represent Lebanon's muslims. Eventually Lebanon is split along ethnic lines with a Hezbollah Iran backed state controlling Lebanon's muslim majority regions and a Christian Israel backed state controlling Lebanon's Christian majority regions. Syria and Iraq both collapse, but are rebuilt as puppet states of Iran. The Balochs are stamped out. Palestinians are completely annexed and assimilated into Israel.
  5. Once Iraq and Syria collapse, Turkey begins to gain interest in the region. After the Kurdish rebellion rises up, Turkey decides to pacify the region entirely. The kurds are stamped out and Turkey brings Iraq, Syria and Lebanon into its sphere of influence. Kurdish regions of Iraq and Syria are directly annexed into Turkey so that they can keep a direct eye on them, alongside regions with a majority turkmen population. The remainders of Syria, Iraq and Lebanon are split into numerous Arabic satellite states of Turkey. Turkey also gets involved in a new Azeri-Armenian war and all parts of Armenia not annexed by Azerbaijan are placed under the control of a Turkish satellite state. Balochs may or may not win.
  6. After the collapse of Lebanon, Iraq and Syria a highly successful kurdish rebellion occurs in Southeastern Turkey. The Azeri-Armenian war results in an Armenian victory and Armenia is able to take over Ararat. Turkey is severely weakened after this occurrence, and loses its occupation zones in Syria. Iraq and Syria are split along sectarian lines. Lebanon is controlled by the rebels. Balochistan gains independence from Iran,Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  7. Saudi Arabia decides to take control over Iraq and Syria as a way to totally block Iran from exerting influence outside of its borders. As such, they intervene and institute Saudi-friendly puppet states in Iraq and Syria. Lebanon falls into the Israeli sphere of influence.
  8. Balochistan insurgent's attempt to declare independence from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran succeeds. This convinces many other ethnic groups within Afghanistan to also attempt to secede from Afghanistan. These include the Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazaras, and others. With Afghanistan's deep instability at the moment, these movements succeed and Afghanistan is left as a mere rump state made out of Afghanistan's Pashtun regions. The Afghan government and Taliban alike are hit hard by this event. A similar phenomenon occurs in Pakistan, with less initial success however with Indian support of these separatists, they eventually would succeed in their actions.
Scenario 1, illustration

Scenario 2, illustration

Scenario 3, illustration
Scenario 4, illustration

Scenario 5, illustration

Scenario 6, illustration

Scenario 7, illustration
Scenario 8, illustration
submitted by Person21323231213242 to collapse [link] [comments]


2020.07.17 03:34 Person21323231213242 MMW: Lebanon will collapse soon with its current deepening crisis. The shockwaves of this collapse will have a significant domino effect, causing conflicts to erupt throughout the region.

This is something of a followup to a previous prediction on this in which I predicted that the covid-19 crisis could cause civil wars in several developing countries.
A link to it is here:
https://www.reddit.com/MarkMyWords/comments/frvgkg/mmw_the_coronavirus_crisis_and_the_economic/
TL;DR: See the title, and skip the next seven paragraphs to get directly to my predictions. This is as those paragraphs only work to explain why I believe my predictions will come to pass.
Now, this post is supposed to act as a follow up to that previous one now that new information has surfaced. As it seems, in recent weeks Lebanon has found itself in deep economic woes. 50% of its populace live in poverty right now and the system is riddled with corruption. Electricity blackouts occur for 20 hours a day in many parts of the country. The Covid-19 pandemic lockdown has hit the economy hard and their currency has slid 80% in value since October. At this point Lebanon's only true hope is an IMF loan - which itself is unlikely to work as such loans have been given to no true avail (due to corruption). Mass starvation has even become a possibility. Not only this, but even before the pandemic the people already loathed the government and riots occurred in late 2019- early 2020. Now that the populace has effectively lost everything they've had to lose, their anger has and will turn to the government and its backer Hezbollah. Despite the virus, already this anger has reappeared amongst the populace. Banks are already being targeted by molotovs and civil strife has begun. It is only a matter of time at this point before the populace rises up to overthrow the government. Sure, Lebanon's largest military bloc Hezbollah is strong and has many members. But, it is doubtful that they will be able to suppress a huge chunk of the populous in their current situation. The Lebanese government itself seems to be in an even worse situation than that.

However, the thing is that the Lebanese government/Hezbollah will probably not be destroyed immediately. This is because Lebanon lies within Iran's sphere of influence and its proximity to Israel makes it a valuable asset to Iran. As such, the Iranian government will attempt to prop up whatever is left of the government/hezbollah. However, Iran itself is going through an economic crisis and a second wave of coronavirus so it will not be as able to help Hezbollah as it would have been prior to covid-19. As such, it is likely that the Iranians will only be able to keep hezbollah functional in muslim majority regions rather than in control of Lebanon.

Another reason why the Lebanese government will likely be unable to take back full control over the country is Israel. The thing is that Israel as Iran's main adversary has a goal of keeping Iranian proxies off of its border. This is apparent through its constant bombardment of Iran backed Syria and demands that Iran forces/proxies leave Syria & Lebanon. As such if a revolution were to break out in Lebanon, Israel would certainly support it. Such a situation has actually happened before as in the first Lebanese civil war (1975 - 1990), they indeed did back Maronite Christian militias as a way to counteract the influence of the Iran backed Syrian government and Hezbollah in the region. But, this strength for any rebellion could also prove to be a strength for Hezbollah. This is as it could blame much of the crisis on Israeli meddling and get at least some members of the Lebanese public to join their side. With Israel soon to annex parts of the west bank, Hezbollah could catch Israel on two fronts with palestinian opposition sure to occur in the west bank.
But the thing is that unlike the first Lebanese civil war, it is likely that in this case the war could spillover into other countries. Namely, Iraq and Syria. The reason is that Iraq,Syria and Lebanon all have at least somewhat intertwined economies nowadays and face roughly the same problems as one another. Both have experienced significant economic woes in recent months (Syria more so than Iraq) and all are within the Iranian sphere of influence. The vast majority of Iraq's population have turned against Iran and Syria's populace has experienced significant hardship in recent years. Iraq's government may have made some steps against these issues, but it seems to have been too little too late - not to mention that its reformist PM is mostly stonewalled by bureaucracy. So once a successful revolution occurs in Lebanon - the people of both countries may very well follow Lebanon's example in sparking revolutions against their governments. After all, that is exactly what happened during the Arab spring when the successful Tunisian revolution inspired others across the arab world. Such a successive collapse of governments would probably occur from west to east, as Syria's government is more unstable than Iraq's at the moment. Consequences of these collapses could prove to be quite massive. The first one would be that ISIS would have an opening to rise above being an insurgency and stake claim to land again. They might take over some areas of Iraq and Syria - which itself would result in more resources for the group to work with and as such make it more capable of launching attacks elsewhere. Another is that even now, there still are some baathists in Sunni-majority parts of Iraq. They too might gain influence and legitimacy for their cause. Sure, it is unlikely that Baathists could takeover all of Iraq, but even if they create a rump state in Northwestern Iraq they still could change the geopolitics of the region. Finally, seeing how Sunnis and Shias have been at odds in Iraq for such a long time, it is likely that once the chaos settles down Iraq will split along sectarian lines. A similar thing might happen in Syria, with the Druze and Alawites both being historically oppressed by Sunni Arabs. With Assad gone, neither will want to feel this oppression again and as such they will probably secede from Syria. However, with the Alawites occupying a strategic location on the coast and being the ethnic group of Syrian President Bashar al Assad, it is likely that in the case of a Syrian collapse Russia will secure an Alawite protectorate on the coast of Syria. And depending on if the Russian government believes it necessary to stake control of Syria yet again, they may go further.

Outside of Iraq and Syria, the surrounding region also has a few more conflicts which could spark with the collapses of Iraq,Syria and Lebanon. The first one I will mention is the Kurdish conflict for independence. This is because once Iraq collapses, the Kurdish autonomous authority (or KRG) will probably declare independence yet again. Such an event will occur because said authority now acts as the most developed part of Iraq, and it did attempt to declare independence back in 2017. With Iraq gone, the kurds there will have nothing stopping them from declaring independence. Even though this may not seem to be a big issue, it comes with one major consequence. This is as Kurds and their homeland Kurdistan extends beyond Northern Iraq & Syria, but also into nearby Turkey and Iran. With the former being quite harsh to their respective kurdish minority, there has been an ongoing Kurdish insurgency there for the past 40 years. Even though it may not be as intense as it was in the past, the successful creation of a Kurdish state just across the border could easily reignite this insurgency as it would prove that the insurgent's goals were achievable. Sure, the KRG itself has allowed the Turkish government to weed out insurgents within their territory, but many kurds there are sympathetic to the cause of creating a united kurdish state. So with the disappearance of any Iraqi influence in the region, it will become easier for the insurgents to gain supplies from sympathizers across the border. Not only that, but with the disappearance of Iraqi influence over the KRG, it is likely that more and more Kurdish nationalists will enter the Kurdistan parliament as national pride sets in. With such a change, it is likely that over time the Kurdish parliament will slowly begin to turn against Turkey in favor of supporting the insurgents. As such, this may cause heightened conflict between these Kurds and Turkey. And as long as the Kurdish insurgents keep their image fairly intact, they may very well achieve Kurdish independence from Turkey.

Another conflict which may surge is the Balochistan insurgency in Iran and Pakistan. For the past 70 years the baloch people have been attempting to gain independence from Iran and Pakistan. Right now the insurgency is quite low level. But, the thing is that if Iran's allies in Arabia start collapsing, the balochs in Iran will be emboldened. After all, it is far easier to recruit for a rebel movement when their goals seem achievable. As such, within months of Lebanon's collapse there probably will be a resurgent Balochi independence movement in Iran's Balochistan & Sistan province. And once such an insurgency becomes prevalent in Iranian Balochistan, it will almost certainly begin to spill over into Pakistani Balochistan. Such an occurrence could cause geopolitical turbulence as with Pakistan having a constant border-dispute with India, it is likely that India would support the Balochi insurgents if their activities intensify in Pakistan. If India does that, that itself would cause the Balochi insurgency to intensify further and result in deeper rifts between nations in the region. With nearby border-regions of unstable Afghanistan also having a majority Baloch population - even if the Iranian and Pakistani armies are able to drive Baloch insurgents out of their territories, these insurgents could simply retreat into Southern Afghanistan to regroup. As such, the conflict itself could take years to settle down again, especially with Indian support.

This conflict may be the most unlikely here, but in my opinion it is likely that with a kurdistan conflict, it is likely that Armenia & Azerbaijan will get involved in such a crisis. The reasons for this stem from way back during the Armenian genocide. Back then, the Ottoman predecessor of modern Turkey exterminated the Armenians of Western Armenia believing them to be collaborating with the Russian empire. Even though the Ottomans have been long dead and Western Armenia is now integrated into Turkey, there is still one part of Western Armenia which Armenians yearn for. This is the mountain of Ararat (Or rather, the twin Ararat mountains). Mount Ararat is the national symbol of Armenia and Armenians even call it their "Holy mountain" . Ari.L.Goldman once noted that "In most Armenian homes in the modern diaspora, there are pictures of Mount Ararat, a bittersweet reminder of the homeland and national aspirations."[138]. And yet, Ararat is currently a part of Turkey. As such, if a kurdish rebellion flares up across Eastern Turkey, it is very likely that the Armenian government will take their chance to take the mountain and other historical Armenian sites (mostly just ruins of old Armenian capitals) along the Turco-Armenian border. Sure, such an action would be incredibly risky. Turkey is in NATO after all - and could have called in the support of NATO under article 5 in normal times. However, we live in incredibly volatile times which have completely changed the dynamic of geopolitics. The US may have stabilized its economy after the March/April COVID stock market crash but this stabilization seems to be merely temporary - seeing how another nation-wide lockdown seems to be on the horizon with the rising cases. Soon their stock market will crash yet again. With the US's influence on the world stage, its American and European allies will also feel the brunt of a new recession. In such a crisis, they will not be keen on helping a far off ally fight an insignificant war - let alone Turkey, the one which has had the worst relationship with the US out of its old-world allies. With the Kurdish rebellion, Turkey itself will have bigger worries to deal with other than losing some eastern borderlands. Turkey's biggest loss would be their land connection to Azerbaijan - their closest ally. Not only that, but seeing Ararat's significance to the Armenian public, occupying it would be a very popular ordeal. The current government of Armenia could raise its popularity significantly if it were to claim Ararat. As such, the conditions are surprisingly in Armenia's favor. The whole operation will take a matter of hours to complete, seeing that Ararat is only 20 miles from the Armenian border and the historic capitals are even closer. Not to mention that Ararat is surrounded by Kurdish majority territory, which would probably already be in revolt. It could easily be given the excuse of "securing Armenian borders from chaos". Turkey might do some saber rattling, but if the Kurds would be in full revolt there would be nothing they could do about it However, these conditions would only work if the Kurds enter a full scale revolt. With Turkey's huge army, if such a scenario does not occur, the Armenians would be defeated easily and occupied by Turkey. Assuming that such a Kurdish rebellion does occur, Armenia still would have one additional contender to deal with - Azerbaijan. After an incident in which 16 Azeri soldiers were killed, a large amount of Azeri citizens have called for a new war with Armenia (https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-53415693). Since than incident, both sides have been engaging in clashes. As such, it is likely that Azerbaijan and Armenia might go to war yet again. With Azerbaijan being Turkey's closest ally, even if Armenia doesn't attempt to claim Mt Ararat - Turkey will support the Azeris. With Azerbaijan itself being significantly larger than Armenia, it may seem that Armenia wouldn't take any chances with taking Ararat, even if good circumstances arise so that all available troops can help fight Azerbaijan. But, the reason why such a war may actually make claiming Mt. Ararat more likely is because Ararat lies directly to the west of Turkey's land connection to Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan enclave. As such, supplies directed from Turkey to Azerbaijan will probably need to go through this area to reach Azerbaijan. In the case of a kurdish rebellion Turkey probably wouldn't use this corridor much - however after it would be inevitably put down Turkey would probably use this corridor to give Azerbaijan supplies.So, if Turkey is ravaged by a large Kurdish rebellion, Armenia will need to secure this region for the sake of preventing Turkey from giving supplies directly to Azerbaijan once the rebels are defeated. Seeing these influences, I believe it is likely that Armenia will enter the conflict.

Based on these factors, here is a bullet list of events on how events might transpire when it comes to the collapse of Lebanon and its consequences. Keep in mind, this includes all the potential locations written about earlier (the Caucasus, Lebanon,Iraq, Syria and Balochistan) and is only based on the current, incomplete perspective of the present. As such, this only includes things which could be predicted, and the events are only placed in and order which I believe makes sense. In reality, they could occur in different orders and many events I have not predicted could very well occur. Some might not even occur at all. As such, I am not including specific dates into this list of events.:

  1. Lebanon's present crisis continues to worsen, the people become even more restless.
  2. Impoverished individuals begin to protest en mass - violence becomes commonplace
  3. Riots ensue across Lebanon.
  4. The government attempts to fight back against the protestors. This simply radicalizes them
  5. Some soldiers/police officers join the protestors - providing weapons to the movement.
  6. A leader emerges amongst the protestors. They declare war on the Lebanese government.
  7. Radicalized protestors assault a weapons depot. Through sheer numbers (and with heavy casualties), they break in and take the weapons.
  8. Civil war commences - the Lebanese public begins to capture towns along the coast. Lebanese defences begin to collapse.
  9. Iran begins to send as much supplies as it can to Lebanon - mostly to no avail.
  10. Israel begins to support the rebel's cause.
  11. Israel begins its annexation of the west bank.
  12. As a last ditch attempt to stop the rebellion, Hezbollah blames Israel for the crisis and starts a war with them. At this point, the writing would be on the wall that Hezbollah would be destroyed, so such an action would work as a final act of defiance against Israel & an instigator for Palestinian revolts in Israel. It also would act as a way to discredit the rebellion at least a bit.
  13. Palestinian rebels begin to rise up in the west bank.
  14. The rebel's progress is halted for a time but Israel becomes directly involved in the war.
  15. Beirut is captured by the rebels.
  16. Hezbollah and the Lebanese government enter full rout, only holding on in select pockets in Eastern Lebanon.
  17. Lebanese rebels declare the formation of a new Lebanese government.
  18. Palestinian rebels are thoroughly squashed by the Israeli military. The west bank is entirely annexed by Israel.
  19. With the collapse of Lebanon, Syria's economy begins to suffer massively.
  20. Iran threatens war with Israel over the situation.
  21. Iran convinces Syria to intervene in Lebanon.
  22. Syria directly enters the war in Lebanon to prevent a total end to the Lebanese government.
  23. With support from Israel, the Lebanese rebels begin to spread into parts of Syria directly north of Lebanon. Locals begin to support these rebels.
  24. Similarly to the Arab spring, by some chain reaction the details of which are not yet apparent, copycats sympathetic to the Lebanese cause rise up in Syria and Iraq.
  25. The Syrian and Iraqi governments alongside Iran backed militias will attempt to fight these groups, but in the end both will collapse (to make a long story short). Syria will fall first due to its more severe instability.
  26. Sectarian conflict breaks out all over Syria and Iraq
  27. The Baloch insurgency begins to intensify - with the Balochs using the opportunity to take advantage of Iran's weakness.
  28. Iran will attempt to fight back against these rebels, but will probably be only able to maintain hold on the Shiite regions of Iraq.
  29. Russia will attempt to stop the collapse, but they will be too late to prevent it. Russian troops will establish an Alawite state along the coast, but the remainder of Syria would become too much of a hassle to reconquer.
  30. The kurds in Northern Iraq declares independence from Iraq to escape the crisis.
  31. The new Kurdish state in Northern Iraq takes over Kurdish majority lands to its south taken by Iraq during the brief 2017 KRG-Iraq conflict. The most important of these territories is the city of Kirkuk.
  32. The new Kurdish state in Northern Iraq begins to align with the YPG of Syria.
  33. The resurgence of Baloch rebellion extends into Pakistan.
  34. A surge in violence in Turkish Kurdistan occurs as local Kurdish independence groups attempt to gain independence following the example of the new kurdish state.
  35. India begins to support the Balochs in the name of weakening Pakistan.
  36. Pakistan threatens war on India over supporting the Balochs - leads to some saber rattling but nothing more.
  37. The Baloch rebels begin to move into Afghanistan.
  38. Kurdish rebels gain momentum in Turkey.
  39. Kurdish rebels begin to claim territory (mostly rural towns) as their rebellion grows.
  40. Armenia claims Mount Ararat (alongside its surrounding area) and the ruins of some former Armenian capitals along the border. The Armenian government initially claims that this operation is for the sake of protecting the Armenian border from the Kurdish insurgency, but after some time it begins assimilating the occupied area into Armenia.
At this point, we would have reached a bit too far into the future to concretely predict anything about what happens. But here are a few (out of many) potential endings:

  1. Russia launches an offensive from the Alawite regions into the rest of Syria. They reclaim Syria and Lebanon as parts of their sphere of influence. Iraq is reclaimed as part of Iran's sphere of influence while the Kurds and Balochs are stamped out. Iran has to accept the loss Syria and Lebanon from its sphere of influence.
  2. Lebanese rebels maintain control over Lebanon while Syria and Iraq are split along ethnic lines. Balochi and Kurd rebels are stamped out, so no border changes occur outside of Lebanon,Iraq and Syria.
  3. ISIS reemerges in Syria & Iraq as a result of the collapse of said nations and is able to defeat all other warring factions. Lebanon, Syria and Iraq fall under ISIS control. Without a friendly Kurdish state across the border, the Kurdish insurgency in Turkey does not intensify. Balochs might still rise up, however and may or may not win.
  4. Hezbollah is able to hold on in Muslim majority regions of Lebanon. Over time, the Lebanese civil war becomes more and more sectarian as the rebels become an overwhelmingly Christian movement and Hezbollah comes to represent Lebanon's muslims. Eventually Lebanon is split along ethnic lines with a Hezbollah Iran backed state controlling Lebanon's muslim majority regions and a Christian Israel backed state controlling Lebanon's Christian majority regions. Syria and Iraq both collapse, but are rebuilt as puppet states of Iran. The Balochs are stamped out. Palestinians are completely annexed and assimilated into Israel.
  5. Once Iraq and Syria collapse, Turkey begins to gain interest in the region. After the Kurdish rebellion rises up, Turkey decides to pacify the region entirely. The kurds are stamped out and Turkey brings Iraq, Syria and Lebanon into its sphere of influence. Kurdish regions of Iraq and Syria are directly annexed into Turkey so that they can keep a direct eye on them, alongside regions with a majority turkmen population. The remainders of Syria, Iraq and Lebanon are split into numerous Arabic satellite states of Turkey. Turkey also gets involved in a new Azeri-Armenian war and all parts of Armenia not annexed by Azerbaijan are placed under the control of a Turkish satellite state. Balochs may or may not win.
  6. After the collapse of Lebanon, Iraq and Syria a highly successful kurdish rebellion occurs in Southeastern Turkey. The Azeri-Armenian war results in an Armenian victory and Armenia is able to take over Ararat. Turkey is severely weakened after this occurrence, and loses its occupation zones in Syria. Iraq and Syria are split along sectarian lines. Lebanon is controlled by the rebels. Balochistan gains independence from Iran,Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  7. Saudi Arabia decides to take control over Iraq and Syria as a way to totally block Iran from exerting influence outside of its borders. As such, they intervene and institute Saudi-friendly puppet states in Iraq and Syria. Lebanon falls into the Israeli sphere of influence.
  8. Balochistan insurgent's attempt to declare independence from Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran succeeds. This convinces many other ethnic groups within Afghanistan to also attempt to secede from Afghanistan. These include the Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazaras, and others. With Afghanistan's deep instability at the moment, these movements succeed and Afghanistan is left as a mere rump state made out of Afghanistan's Pashtun regions. The Afghan government and Taliban alike are hit hard by this event. A similar phenomenon occurs in Pakistan, but is less successful there due to Pakistan's general stability.
submitted by Person21323231213242 to MarkMyWords [link] [comments]


2020.07.06 15:14 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - the Teda in Chad

Running off a different time zone today which I actually think will make this earlier this week than normal.... Even though I went the wrong direction for that to be the case. Oh well. Guys, its missions monday!! Lets learn about a people group and spend some time in prayer for them! Now lets meet the Teda of Chad
How Unreached Are They?
The Teda are 0.0% Christian. That means out of their population of 88,000 in Chad, there are maybe a small handful of believers.
There is no known Bible translation in their language (Tegada).
What are they like?
As with all populations, generalizations are only helpful up until a point and do not describe every single person.
The Teda are a race of desert warriors living in the eastern and central Sahara Desert. The majority can be found in the Tibesti Mountains on the Libyan-Chad border. Their harsh environment, extreme poverty, and remote location make them a very tough people, who have often had violent clashes with the neighboring tribes.
Teda culture has little respect for those who do agricultural work. Reluctant to rely on cultivation, they depend on a flexible nomadic system for survival. Their property system favors mobility and military strength over securing land and farming it.
Because of their lack of interest in farming, most of the Teda are herdsmen. About one third are nomads; the rest are semi-nomadic. The semi-nomads move from place to place for eight or nine months, then returning to their villages during the rainy season. The Teda who farm do not practice crop rotation or use plows to cultivate the land. Some irrigation is always necessary for the crops, and animal manure is used as fertilizer. The date palm is the main food plant. Milk from goats, sheep, and camels is another basic part of their diet. Vegetables, grains, fruits, legumes, and root crops are also grown. In addition, many Teda must hunt with dogs and gather wild fruits and seeds to further supplement their food supplies.
Livestock is the main source of wealth in Teda society. Camels and goats are the most common animals kept. The men are responsible for herding the camels, as well as for hunting and trading. Women tend to the goats and till the soil, but most farm work is done by slaves.
The Teda live in camps that consist of extended family members. The oldest man in the family has authority until his death. Marriages involve the payment of a substantial bride-price, which consists of livestock. Polygamy (having more than one spouse) is permitted, but rarely practiced. Most Teda communities have only a few hundred inhabitants. The more settled groups who live in the villages are not there for the whole year. Generally, they live in round huts with stone or mud walls. The huts have cone-shaped thatch roofs supported by a central post. The nomadic Teda often live in rectangular or oval-shaped tents that have wooden frames and mats made of palm leaves or animal skins. Sometimes, they use caves for shelter while looking for pasture.
Rough sports and violence are a regular part of life among the Teda. Although the man is usually the family leader, the wife may beat him if he challenges her authority in certain matters. Women usually carry daggers, and the men do not interfere in a fight between two women. Joshua Project
History Lesson
The ancient history of the Toubou people is unclear. They may be related to the 'Ethiopians' mentioned by Herodotus in 430 BCE, as a people being hunted by Garamantes, but this is speculative, as Jean Chapelle argues.
In Islamic literature, the earliest mention as the Tubu people is perhaps that along with the Zaghawa people in an 8th-century text by Arabic scholar Ibn Qutaybah. The 9th century al-Kuwarizmi mentions the Daza people (southern Toubou). They represent 2.9% of the total population of Chad. Wikipedia
What do they believe?
The Teda are virtually all Muslim. However, prior to their conversion, they were animists (believed that non-living objects have spirits). They converted to Islam in the 1800s, but only after almost 1000 years of contact with Arab Muslims. Their animistic background, however, seems to have been incorporated into their Muslim practices.
Today, the Teda follow the Islamic calendar, including fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. Both men and women faithfully say daily prayers, and more of them are now making pilgrimages to Mecca. Several Islamic schools have also been built in this region during the last century.Joshua Project
How Can We Pray for Them?
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed
People Group Country Date Posted Beliefs
Teda Chad 07/06/20 Islam
Kotokoli Togo 06/28/20 Islam
Hobyot Oman 06/22/20 Islam
Moor Sri Lanka 06/15/20 Islam
Shaikh Bangladesh 06/08/20 Islam
Khalka Mongols Mongolia 06/01/20 Animism
Comorian France 05/18/20 Islam
Bedouin Jordan 05/11/20 Islam
Muslim Thai Thailand 05/04/20 Islam
Nubian Uganda 04/27/20 Islam
Kraol Cambodia 04/20/20 Animism
Tay Vietnam 04/13/20 Animism
Yoruk Turkey 04/06/20 Islam
Xiaoliangshn Nosu China 03/30/20 Animism
Jat (Muslim) Pakistan 03/23/20 Islam
Beja Bedawi Egypt 03/16/20 Islam
Tunisian Arabs Tunisia 03/09/20 Islam
Yemeni Arab Yemen 03/02/20 Islam
Bosniak Croatia 02/24/20 Islam
Azerbaijani Georgia 02/17/20 Islam
Zaza-Dimli Turkey 02/10/20 Islam
Huichol Mexico 02/03/20 Animism
Kampuchea Krom Cambodia 01/27/20 Buddhism
Lao Krang Thailand 01/20/20 Buddhism
Gilaki Iran 01/13/20 Islam
Uyghurs China 01/01/20 Islam
Israeli Jews Israel 12/18/19 Judaism
Drukpa Bhutan 12/11/19 Buddhism
Malay Malaysia 12/04/19 Islam
Lisu (Reached People Group) China 11/27/19 Christian
Dhobi India 11/20/19 Hinduism
Burmese Myanmar 11/13/19 Buddhism
Minyak Tibetans China 11/06/19 Buddhism
Yazidi Iraq 10/30/19 Animism*
Turks Turkey 10/23/19 Islam
Kurds Syria 10/16/19 Islam
Kalmyks Russia 10/09/19 Buddhism
Luli Tajikistan 10/02/19 Islam
Japanese Japan 09/25/19 Shintoism
Urak Lawoi Thailand 09/18/19 Animism
Kim Mun Vietnam 09/11/19 Animism
Tai Lue Laos 09/04/19 Bhuddism
Sundanese Indonesia 08/28/19 Islam
Central Atlas Berbers Morocco 08/21/19 Islam
Fulani Nigeria 08/14/19 Islam
Sonar India 08/07/19 Hinduism
Pattani Malay Thailand 08/02/19 Islam
Thai Thailand 07/26/19 Buddhism
Baloch Pakistan 07/19/19 Islam
Alawite Syria 07/12/19 Islam*
Huasa Cote d'Ivoire 06/28/19 Islam
Chhetri Nepal 06/21/19 Hinduism
Beja Sudan 06/14/19 Islam
Yinou China 06/07/19 Animism
Kazakh Kazakhstan 05/31/19 Islam
Hui China 05/24/19 Islam
Masalit Sudan 05/17/19 Islam
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or PM me and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples!
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached"
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]


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Tunisian Brides - Meet & Date Tunisian Women For Marriage

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